Presentation on theme: "Why evolution does not mean we came from MONKEYS…"— Presentation transcript:
1Why evolution does not mean we came from MONKEYS… From Them to Us…Why evolution does not mean we came from MONKEYS…
2PrimatesPrimates are an order of mammals which includes lemurs, monkeys, apes, and humansWhere do we separate?
3COMMON PRIMATE TRAITS 5 DIGITS ON BOTH HANDS & FEET NAILS INSTEAD OF CLAWSFLEXIBLE HANDS WITH ABILITY TO GRIPERECT UPPER BODYCOLLARBONESMALL NOSE, NO ACUTE SENSE OF SMELLUSE OF VISION AS PRIMARY SENSELARGE & COMPLEX BRAINEFFICIENT FETAL NOURISHMENTLONG PERIODS OF INFANT DEPENDENCY AND LEARNED BEHAVIORADULT MALES ALWAYS PRESENT WITHIN GROUP (HELP IN CHILD REARING).
4Trends in Primate Evolution Larger body sizeIncreasing brain size or cranial capacityMore upright standingLiving in or near treesA diet that includes plants and animalsBinocular vision that allows for depth perception
5Trends in Primate Evolution continued… Specialized color visionA decreasing number of young produced al one timeLonger embryonic and childhood developmentSpecialized thumbIncreasing lifespanGrowing complexity of social behavior
6Differences Between Man and Apes Humans have the development of more specialized areas in the brainHumans have a more vertical face plateHumans have a smaller jaw and more evenly rounded archHumans have smaller canine teethHumans have smaller molarsHumans have longer lower limbs (legs) and shorter upper limbs (arms)
7The biggy…BipedalismBipedalism is erect posture and walking with two feetBipedalism was important in developing the ability to hunt and make tools
11The Australopithecines Means “Southern Ape”Australopithecus was an erect walking ape that was a member of the hominid familyThere were at least 5 kinds of Australopithecines, but probably one was man’s ancestorAustralopithecines lived 5 to 1 million years ago
12Australopithecus Anamensis 4.2-3.9 mya Found: Tibia, pieces of skull, and mandibleCharacteristics:Probably walked upright.Enamel on teeth suggests a diet of hard food but size is pretty primitive.Probably lived in open woodland in area that is now northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia.
13Australopithecus Afarensis 4-3 mya Australopithecus Afarensis resembled a chimpanzee, but was upright and bipedalThey lived million years agoA.Afarensis probably did not make tools or understand fire
14Australopithecus Afarensis 4-3 mya Characteristics:Foreword protruding faceU-Shaped Jaw (like an ape; human jaw’s are parabolic shaped)Small Cranial Capacity (About the same size as modern chimps).Debatable descendents…homo? robustus?
15Lucy Lucy was an Australopithecus Afarensis Her skeleton was was discovered by Donald Johanson in Ethiopia in 1974She was the most complete pre-human skeleton ever foundHer bones gave many clues about her anatomy, diet and lifestyle
16More Discoveries of A. Afarensis Fossils AL 129Complete Knee Joint1976Donald JohansonHadar Region of EthiopiaSignificanceShows angle of femur to place foot under center of body.Confirms upright walking.
17More Discoveries of A. Afarensis Fossils Footprints at Laetoli3.6 myaFootprints of two creatures formed in fresh lava ash.1975Mary LeakeyLaetoli, TanzaniaSignificanceHeight determined by length of stride 4’-4’8”Confirmed Bipedality by this timeBig toe in lineHeel toe strike when walking
19Australopithecus Africanus 3.3-2.5 mya “Southern Apeman of Africa”First Australopithicine to be identifiedRaymond Dart’s Taung Child (1925)The species walked upright and probably used toolsIt is unknown where it came from and who it led too.
21Australopithicus garhi 2.5 mya May be a link between genus Australopithicus and HomoMay have been the earliest tool userfound scratches on Antelope bone fossilsFound in Ethiopia in 1997
22Paranthropus boisei 2.3-1.2 mya Highly specialized for heavy chewing.Thrived in drier savannah climate.Specialization may have been downfall as climate changed and it was unable to adapt.
23Australopithecus Robustus Australopithecus Robustus was probably another human “cousin”The species was large and was probably a vegetarianRobustus lived million years agoRobustus was possibly preyed on by early humansFossils of Robustus were first found in East and South Africa in the 1930s and 40s by the Leakey family
28Louis Leakey and Olduvai Gorge Dr. Louis Leakey and his wife, Mary , did their fieldwork at Olduvai Gorge, TanzaniaDr. Richard Leakey, their son , currently does fieldwork in the Lake Turkana regionLouis Leakey is credited with the discovery of Homo Habilis, the first human
29Homo Habilis 2.3-1.6 mya “Handy Man” Homo Habilis was the earliest known species of the genus homoProbably made toolsProbably scavenged for meat and ate vegetationSkull was 30% larger than AustralopithecinesBrain much more human like in shape.
30Homo HabilisSome anthropologists believe that Homo Habilis hunted for preyThese tools are believed to be the tools of HomoHabilis
32Homo rudolfensis 2.3-1.6 mya & Homo ergaster 1.9-1.6 mya Not much is known about RudolfensisHomo ergaster is the earlier African only form of Homo erectus.Very rounded cranium, more spaciousSmall teethHomo rudolfensisHomo ergaster
33Homo Erectus 1.9-.3 mya “Erect of Upright Man” Homo Erectus was the first large brained humanSometimes called “Java Man” or “Peking Man”
34Homo ErectusHomo Erectus made tools and lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyleDiet included plants and animals
35Homo Erectus Homo Erectus was the first hominid to migrate from Africa Homo Erectus remains have been found in Africa, Asia and Europe
36HANDSOMEFELLA!HOMO ERECTUSHOMO ERECTUS WAS THE FIRST HOMINID TO BE DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT THE OLD WORLD, PERHAPS EVEN TO EUROPE, ITSELF.1 MILLION YEARS AGO HOMO ERECTUS LIVED IN ASIA1.8 MILLION YEARS AGO IN JAVAPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICSSKULL WAS LONG, LOW, AND THICK WALLED WITH FLAT FRONTAL AREA AND PROMINENT BROW RIDGESNOSE PROJECTED AND FROM THE NECK DOWN, INDISTINGUISHABLE FROM HOMO SAPIENSHEIGHT AND WEIGHT RESEMBLED THAT OF MODERN HUMANS
37Homo Heidelbergensis 700-100,000 years ago The between species.Features of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens.Very robust mandible, no chinVery prominent brow ridgeIncreased cranial capacity.Smaller teeth but bigger than Homo sapiens.
38Neanderthal Man 250-30,000 years ago Homo NeanderthalensisThis species was human , but was probably not an ancestor to modern humans
39Neanderthal Man Neanderthal man had large arms and legs His brain was actually larger than modern humans, but the language and speech center of the brain was not well developedNeantherthal man was a hunter who made tools, had primitive language skills and used fire
40Neanderthal ManFossilized remains of Neanderthal Man were first found in the Neander Valley of Germany in 1857Neanderthal man is sometimes referred to as a cave man