2Background InfoPaleanthropologist: Scientist who studies fossil evidence of human evolutionHominid: Humans and immediate ancestorsScientists study clues from hominids to construct what we know about human evolution
6Evolution of Bipedalism Anatomical changesNeck (1)Spine aligned strait downChest (2)Lower back (3)Human spine is S shaped which allows upright standinghips and pelvis (4)Supports Organsthighs (5), knees (6), feet (7)Shorter toes, alligned feet, knees close together
8Hominid Evolution Homo habilis (2.0 – 1.6mya) H. rudolfensis ( mya)H. erectus (1.9-27kyBP)H. heidelbergensis ( kyBP)H. neanderthalensis (300-30kyBP)H. sapiens (130kyBP – present)Scale: Millions of Years BP
9Hominid Evolution Major Homo advances: Brain size Better bipedalism HuntingFire (H. erectus)ToolsBuilt shelters (H. heidelbergensis)Clothing (H. neandertalensis)Language (Neandertals?)
10Homo habilis 612 cc brain 2.3 - 1.6 mya first toolmaker, stone “handy human”brow ridgeprobable meat-eaterpossibly arborealdiscovered in 1960 by LeakeysHad region of the brain that was essential for speechArtist’s representation of a Homo habilis band as it might have existed two million years ago.
11H. habilis v. H. erectusFinds in east Africa indicate that Homo habilis was not very different from the australopithecines in terms of body size and shape.The earliest Homo erectus remains indicate rapid biological change.H. erectus was considerably taller (5’ 7” 12 yr old) and had a larger brain than H. habilis.
12Homo erectus 1891 - Eugene Dubois discovers H. erectus in Java Dubois calls it Pithecanthropus erectus initially, also dubbed “Java Man”dates from 1.9 mya994 cc brain size (compare to 612 for H. habilis, two-thirds that of modern human)Thick Skull, Large Brow ridges, low forehead, large teethHunters, used fires, lived in cavesPhotograph of Nariokotome boy, an early Homo erectus found near Lake Turkana, Kenya.
13Homo erectus – 1.9mya to 27k BP Why was H. erectus so successful?Less sexual dimorphism = possible pair bonds, marriageLess hair on body = wearing of furs, other clothingWearing of furs = ability to live further northQuick adaptation to environment without physical changesCulture is main reason H. erectus was so successfulorganization for huntingability to protect against predatorscontrol of fire?possible campsitestoolsDistribution of H. erectus
14Homo neanderthalensis discovered in the Neander Valley (Tal) near Dusseldorf, 1856massive brain--about 1,400cc on average5 ft tall, heavy buildlarge torso, short limbs, broad nasal passageslater remains show decrease in robustness of the front teeth and face, suggesting use of tools replaced teethThe skull of the classic Neandertal found in 1908 at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.
15Neanderthal CultureHomesites – In caves, also in the open (near rivers, framed with wood and covered with skins)Burial – Is there evidence of purposeful burial and ritual?Language – Could Neandertals talk or not?Used Tools, carefully shaped stone toolsTop: Reconstruction of Neandertal burial from Shanidar caveBottom: Mousterian tools
16What happened to Neandertals? H. neanderthalensis coexisted with H. sapiens for at least 20,000 years, perhaps as long as 60,000 yearsWhat happened?Neandertals interbred with H. sapiensNeandertals were killed off by H. sapiensH. sapiens drove Neandertals into extinction by competition
17Homo sapiens Archaic – 100,000 to 35,000 years BP Sometimes called Homo sapiens and Homo sapiens neanderthalensisModern – 35,000 years BP to presentAnatomically modernSometimes called Homo sapiens sapiens
18Cro-Magnon Man Cro-Magnon humans 35,000 years B.P. in western Europe to 17,000 years B.P.1,600 cc cranial capacityName comes from a hotel in FranceNot a different species, just old Homo sapiens from EuropeArtist’s reconstruction of a Cro-Magnon man
19Modern Homo SapiensHumans evolved more or less simultaneously across the entire Old World from several ancestral populations.Humans evolved only once--in Africa from H. heidelbergensis ancestors--and then migrated throughout the Old World, replacing their archaic predecessors. Also called the “Out of Africa” hypothesis.