103.3 million years ago3 year old femaleA. afarensisDiscovered 2000Made news 9/20/06Very complete fossil1.5 feet tallAble to piece togetherthroat structure to infervoice like a chimpUnusual to find something so complete that was a babyDied in flash flood?Found in Ethiopia
14Australopithecus africanus Brain Size… Australopithecus africanus Brain Size….440 cc Lack of browbridges on skull and less projecting face
15A. africanus adult discovered in 1947…. brain = 485 cc, 2 A. africanus adult discovered in 1947…..brain = 485 cc, 2.5 million years old
16A. robustus …Discovered by 1994 at the Drimolen cave in South Africa A. robustus …Discovered by 1994 at the Drimolen cave in South Africa. Estimated age is between 1.5 and 2.0 million years. This is an almost complete skull and lower jaw of a female, one of the most complete hominid skulls ever found.A fossil of a male robustus lower jaw, nicknamed Orpheus was found a few inches away
17A. boisei Estimated age ~ 1 A. boisei Estimated age ~ 1.7 million years Brain size = 510cc Discovered 1969 Kenya
22200,000—1 million years ago Brain Size….1000cc Large Browridge Homo erectus200,000—1 million years agoBrain Size….1000ccLarge Browridge
23Homo erectus (maybe H.ergaster?) Found 1984 Kenya 9-11 yr. old boy? Brain 880ccAdult 910ccThe most striking is that the holes in his vertebrae, through which the spinal cord goes, have only about half the cross-sectional area found in modern humans. One suggested explanation for this is that the boy lacked the fine motor control we have in the thorax to control speech, implying that he wasn't nearly as fluent a speaker as modern humans are.
24Teeth similar to ours…but a bit larger Use of FIRE and tools
26Neanderthals………. Short, strong body Large rounded nasal opening Adapted to cold climates of thePleistocene Ice Age30, ,000 years agoSome remains found in graves with flowers???
27Old man neanderthal skull (30-40 years old at death had a healed broken rib, severe arthritis of the hip, lower neck, back and shoulders, and had lost most of his molar teeth. The fact that he survived as long as he did indicates that Neanderthals must have had a complex social structure. ~50, 000 years old
28Cro-magnon 30,000 yrs old Found in France Homo sapiens