Why did so many immigrants come to America ? The promise of a better life. Famine (Ireland) War or Political Crisis (Germany) Shortages of land (Europe) Religious persecution (Pogroms in Russia) Lack of jobs
1. Anglo Conformity 2. Melting Pot 3. Cultural Pluralism
The idea that our mostly Anglo-Saxon or British ancestors molded a fixed, homogeneous (unchanging) American Culture. Rooted in: –The English Language –English Social Patterns –English political institutions In order to Americanize, immigrants must give up their former ways and CONFORM to Anglo-AmericanIn order to Americanize, immigrants must give up their former ways and CONFORM to Anglo-American ways.
PART ONE 1607-1680 Predominantly English 1680s –Puritans, Dutch Swedes, Irish, Scots, Sephardic Jews (Spanish) PART TWO: 1680-1770 1. After 1680 British policies restricted immigration. 2. Africans now increasingly imported as slaves to replace white indentured servants. 3. English dissenters arrive. (English and Welsh Quakers) 4. 1680-1710: Palatine Germans (Pennsylvania Dutch) 5. 1699-1704: Scotch Irish (Ulstermen) 6. 1685: French Huguenots 7. 1750-1770: Scottish Highlanders
Surnames- Head of the Family 60% English 14%Scots or Scotch Irish 9% German 4% Catholic Irish 13% Other
The Idea that ALL immigrants have contributed to America to create a Homogeneous, but CONSTANTLY CHANGING American culture. Made popular by the 1914 play Melting Pot. New Immigrants appreciated this because it gave them credit for their recent contributions to America.
The idea that immigrants must learn certain necessary aspects of American culture but... …they may preserve their distinct differences. American culture consist of a homogeneous center… The English language. Political ideals. Economic institutions. …But has heterogeneous ethnic patterns, especially in social and intellectual life.
American Culture according to CULTURAL PLURALISM
Great, Stages of Immigration, Were all smart now. But its not so much that they came here is it? Isnt America the Story of how we treated them when they got here?
Most Americans can tell you where their ancestors came from but in the next breath they will complain about immigrants today. Americans are proud of their history of allowing immigration but for as long as their has been immigration their has been opposition to it.
1790- Naturalization is allowed to free white persons This requirement exists until 1952 even though it was not enforced. 1798- Alien and Sedition Acts- The residency requirement for becoming a U.S. citizen is raised to 14 years in order to decrease the political power of immigrants. Other than this, for the first 100 years of our country there are few restrictions on immigration.
1882- Chinese Exclusion Act - immigration by Chinese laborers is banned for ten years. The ban was extended and eventually made permanent in 1902. –-The first restriction based upon a specific RACE. 1890s- A list of undesirables will no be allowed to immigrate includes, polygamists, people with loathsome or contagious diseases, and those convicted of crimes of moral turpitude. 1906- The ability to speak and understand English is required for naturalization and Japanese immigration is limited by the Gentlemans agreement.
1917- Literacy requirement for immigration- immigrants must be able to speak and read at lest 40 words in some language in order to enter the US 1921- The National Quota System is created 3% of each nationality in the 1910 census will be allowed to enter. Favors W. and N. European nations and virtually eliminates immigration from Asia 1924- The Johnson Read Act- tries to preserve Americas racial composition. -even more discriminatory than 1921 -virtually eliminates Japanese immigration 1940s- minor changes that mostly effect the number of Chinese that enter the US.
A CHANGE OCCURS HERE!!!! Instead of race being the key the topic of restrictions, political ideology is. Early race restriction begin to ease. 1950 Internal Security Act- –Denies admission to anyone who would endanger the welfare or safety of the United States. Immigrants who join or participate in Communist party activities are deported. 1952- McCarran- Walter Act- -Immigration restrictions are broadened for many nationalities left out before. Begins a trend towards easing immigration restrictions. 1965- The US eliminates racial criteria from immigration laws and gives each country a annual quota of 20,000 per year. Western Hemisphere countries have no quotas.
1976- Congress eliminates the quota exemption for W. Hemisphere nations. 1980s- Penalties are now imposed upon employers who employ illegal aliens. 1990s- The legal limit for immigrants is raised to 700,000 annually. Illegal immigrants are no longer eligible for most government benefits. Immigration laws are constantly changing due to economic and social conditions.