2 What is Citizenship?Citizen – A member of a community who owe loyalty to a government and, in turn, are entitled to the protection of the government.Citizenship – The Rights and Duties of Citizens.
3 Roots of CitizenshipIdeas for citizenship date back 2,500 years ago to Ancient Greece and Rome.Gave them legal rights and the ability to participate in government (Only for men, who owned property.)Then, duties were paying taxes and serving in the armed forces.In the 1700’s revolutionary thinkers in the America and France brought back ancient ideas with some changes to the old definition.
4 Roots of CitizenshipFirst, defined citizenship as belonging to a nation.Second, they said the government gets its power from the people it governs through their participation.This idea is known as “Consent of the governed.”Had the chance to give much power to the people (but still had limits)
5 Roots of CitizenshipAt first only to white males, but over time through struggle other groups gained full citizenship.African Americans were made citizens through the 14th Amendment in 1868.Women gained the right to vote in 1920 through the 19th Amendment.Members of a few Native American tribes became citizens through treaties with the Federal Government.In 1924, Congress would pass the Indian Citizenship Act making all Native Americans citizens.
6 Different Types of Citizens Natural Born Citizen – Anyone born in any of the 50 states belonging to the U.S.Naturalized Citizen – Someone who has undergone the process of earning citizenship:Must be 18 years or older.Must have been a Lawful permanent residents for 5 years.Must be able to read, write, and speak English.Must have Good Moral Character.Must show an understanding of U.S. Civics.
7 Losing CitizenshipExpatriation – Someone who gives their allegiance to a foreign country is expatriated. An example would be someone who becomes a citizen of another country.Denaturalization – People who lie on their citizenship papers are denaturalized (losing your naturalization) and may be deported (sent out of the country)
8 Losing Citizenship Being convicted of three particular crimes: Treason.Taking Part in a Rebellion.Trying to overthrow the government by violent means.Only the federal government can grant citizenship or take it away. States can deny rights to criminals but cannot take away citizenship.
9 Legal AliensAliens – Foreign Born Residents who have not been naturalized.There are two types of Legal Aliens:Resident Aliens – a legal alien who permanently lives in the United States.Nonresident Aliens – someone who expects to stay in the country for a short time only.Legal aliens may hold jobs, own property and attend public school, and receive other government services.Pay taxes to the government and are protected by law.
10 Legal Aliens They cannot run for office or vote in elections. They may not serve on juries or work in government jobs.They must carry Identification Cards at all times.
11 RefugeesRefugee – Person who has left their home to escape danger such as persecution by the government, war, or natural disaster.Leaving a country because of an earthquake.Being persecuted by the government.When someone is a political refugee, the government promises to protect them.Only granted to people who can prove they are really in danger if they return to their homeland.
12 Illegal AliensThe U.S. limits the immigrants that can enter each year to 1 million people.Relatives to U.S. Citizens receive the highest priority alongside those with useful job skills to the U.S.Government makes room for immigrants from countries with lower immigration rates.Illegal Alien – Someone who comes into the country without the governments permission.Also people who stay longer than their permitted legal time.
13 Illegal AliensIf caught, they can be arrested and deported back to their home countries.Illegal Aliens have a more difficult time in the U.S.Can’t be hired legally, Don’t receive benefits and are paid lower, usually have no family or friends to help them, and live with the fear that the government will find and deport them.