LEARNING TARGETS 1.Understand and describe the main trends of recent immigration. 1.Summarize recent immigration trends. 1.Compare and contrast historical immigration trends with recent immigration trends.
1914 –1965: LIMITING IMMIGRATION 1. 1914-1918: WWI strong anti-immigrant feelings literacy tests required in 1917 Anti-German Riot in U.S. 1915 Led to “ Americanization ”
2. 1924: National Origins Act law that discriminated against S & E Europeans 165,000 per year vs. 350,000 in 1921 Took 2% from 1890 (Germany 51,000, Italy 4,000, Egypt 100) Italy went from 42, 058 to 3, 845 “ America must be kept for Americans! ” Pres. Coolidge 1914 –1965: LIMITING IMMIGRATION
KKK March in D.C. in 1925 KKK Growth 1920- 5,000 1925- 5 million 3. 1925: KKK reaches 5 million
1914 –1965: LIMITING IMMIGRATION 4. 1930s -1945 : low immigration due to Depression & WWII 500,000 Mexican workers deported due to worries about jobs.
1914 –1965: LIMITING IMMIGRATION 5. 1948: Displaced Persons Act allowed homeless of WWII to immigrate to U.S. 400,000 Jewish survivors and refuges arrive in U.S.
1960s: REFORMING IMMIGRATION LAWS 1.1960s : quotas questioned; are they fair? 2.1965 : Immigration Act Set annual limits for ALL countries to make laws fair 170,000 Eastern Hemisphere 120,000 Western Hemisphere Johnson signs at Liberty Island
REACTIONS TO 1965 IMMIGRATION ACT Opponent of the bill : "We estimate that if the President gets his way, and the current immigration laws are repealed, the number of immigrants next year will increase threefold and in subsequent years will increase even more... shall we, instead, look at this situation realistically and begin solving our own unemployment problems before we start tackling the world's?" Republican Vice Presidential candidate Rep. William E. Miller of NYWilliam E. Miller The New York Times, Sept. 8, 1964, p. 14 Supporters of the bill: "With the end of discrimination due to place of birth, there will be shifts in countries other than those of northern and western Europe. Immigrants from Asia and Africa will have to compete and qualify in order to get in, quantitatively and qualitatively, which, itself will hold the numbers down. There will not be, comparatively, many Asians or Africans entering this country....Since the people of Africa and Asia have very few relatives here, comparatively few could immigrate from those countries because they have no family ties in the U.S." Democratic Rep. Emanuel Celler of NY Congressional Record, Aug. 25, 1965, p. 21812
1965-TODAY: REFUGEES INCREASE 1. Refugee : Someone who flees a country b/c of persecution 2. 1980 Refugee Act President can admit refugees in an emergency Vietnamese Refugee quote, "It was horrible. Because the first time when we... First time it was seven days and we met seven times Thai pirates. And they jump onto the boats with all kinds of knives and axes and everything. So they took everything, whatever we bring along. Gold, money, but luckily they did not kill anyone."
1965-TODAY: ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION INCREASES 1.Illegal Immigrants : enter the U.S. w/o gov’t approval i.e. Mexicans crossing the border In Mexico, make $3 a day vs. $10 in U.S.
1965-TODAY: ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION INCREASES 2. 1986: Immigration Reform and Control Act penalties on employers who hire illegal immigrants; little impact Fines: $100 - $1, 100 per individual for illegal $250 - $11,000 per violations for continuing to employ illegals $3,000 for perpetual violators and up to 6 mths in prison
1965-TODAY: ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION INCREASES 3. 1996: Immigration Act doubled border control forces & added fences U.S. Mexican Border in New Mexico
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