Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7: Crisis and Absolutism in Europe 1550-1715."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 7: Crisis and Absolutism in Europe 1550-1715
7.1 – Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion The French Wars of Religion (1560) By 1560, Calvinism and Catholicism had become highly militant – aggressive in trying to win converts and in eliminating each others authority. The French Wars of Religion (Civil War) was fought between the Huguenots and Catholics.
French Wars of Religion Huguenots French protestants influenced by Calvin Included was the house of Bourbon (minority) but made up 40-50% of the nobility Catholics Make up the majority of the population Party – the ultra-Catholics – strongly opposed the Huguenots Could recruit and pay for large armies
Henry of Navarre The war goes on for thirty years. In 1589, Henry of Navarre (House of Bourbon) succeeded to the throne and took the name Henry IV. Henry realizes that a Protestant would never be accepted as king; therefore he converts to Catholicism and fighting comes to an end.
The Edict of Nantes To solve this religious problem, Henry issued the Edict of Nantes. The Edict of Nantes recognizes Catholicism as the official religion of France but allow Huguenots the right to worship and the right to enjoy all political privileges.
King Phillip II of Spain – “…the most Catholic king.”
Phillip II, cont’d. The greatest supporter of militant Catholicism in the sixteenth century First major goal – to consolidate the lands inherited from his father, Charles V. Those lands included Spain, the Netherlands, and possessions in Italy and the Americas. To strengthen his control, Philip insisted on strict conformity to Catholicism and strong monarchical authority.
Militant Catholicism Spain saw itself as “…a nation of people chosen by God to save Catholic Christianity from the Protestant heretics.” Calvinist nobles began to destroy statues in Catholic churches in 1566, angry about the loss of their privileges under Phillip’s attempt to crush Calvinism in the Netherlands. Phillip sent 10,000 troops to crush this rebellion and resistance continued under the leadership of William the Silent of Orange until 1609. After the truce, the northern provinces began to call themselves the United Provinces of the Netherlands and became the core of the modern Dutch state.
Elizabeth I, cont’d. Ascended the throne in 1558 and became the leader of the Protestant nations of Europe. Repealed the laws favoring Catholics and allowed religious tolerance, BUT the Church of England remained moderately Protestant and kept most people satisfied. Moderate in foreign policy; feared that war would be disastrous for England and for her own rule. Tried to keep France and Spain from becoming too powerful by supporting whichever was the weaker nation.
Phillip II’s invasion of England Had toyed with the idea of invading England for years to overthrow Protestantism and restore Catholicism. Advisors convinced him that the English would rise against Elizabeth when the Spaniards arrived. In 1588 – Phillip orders the invasion of England by the Spanish Armada - a fleet of warships.
Spanish Armada Phillip II’s fleet that set sail had neither the ships nor the manpower he had planned to send and the English had more advanced weaponry. To break up the large number of ships in the English channel, the English sent eight burning ships into Spanish formation to break them apart at midnight on July 29. The Spanish retreated north towards Scotland.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada Why did Phillip II send out his fleet knowing he did not have enough ships or manpower? Why did the Spanish take a northern route back to Spain? What happened to those ships when they sailed around the coast of Ireland?
Defeat and aftermath “…it is well known that we fight in God’s cause…But unless God helps us by a miracle, the English, who have faster and handier ships than ours, and many more long-range guns…will…stand aloof and knock us to pieces with their guns, without our being able to do them any serious hurt.” – Spanish fleet officer Phillip’s reign ends in 1598 – the treasury was bankrupt from fighting wars, the government was inefficient, the armed forces were outdated. Result: power in England shifts to England and France.