Presentation on theme: "Netherlands Revolt 1566-1609. Mid-sixteenth century Netherlands was very different from either France or Spain – 17 autonomous provinces, the most important."— Presentation transcript:
Mid-sixteenth century Netherlands was very different from either France or Spain – 17 autonomous provinces, the most important being Flanders, Brabant, and Holland – Antwerp was the largest city and chief financial center of western Europe Control of the country was handled by the State-General with delegates from each province The Low Countries was also a popular place for Protestants and religious toleration
Calvinism appealed to the middle classes with an emphasis on any form of labor well done. It took deep root among financiers in Amsterdam and people in the northern provinces. Working-class people were also converted, partly because their employers would hire only other Calvinists.
(John Calvin) By 1560, Calvinism was a strong, militant minority in most of the cities in the Netherlands. Lutheranism had posed no serious threat to Spanish rule. Calvinism is what worried the Spaniards.
HRE Charles V was the ruler of the Low Countries Philip II will inherit the territory He personally disliked the Low Countries and never visited after 1559 Phillip tried to introduce Spanish politics and religion to the Low Countries and encountered stiff resistance – Centralized rule – Strengthen Catholic Church: Force Council of Trent
Habsburg Empire 1560
Phillip did all he could to eradicate Calvinism William I of Orange and the counts Egmont and Horn tried to persuade Phillip to alter his policies Compromise of 1564 – William I of Orange (the silent) formed agreement – Meant to resist Philip’s efforts – Many Calvinists & Merchants joined 1566 lesser nobles asked Phillip to stop the Inquisition Phillip refused … Calvinist Rebel: their fury shocked the Low countries
: Duke of Alva sent to establish control Set up Council of Troubles (Nicknamed Council of Blood) Executed thousands of Calvinists Imposed new taxes Established Inquisition
Sea Beggars harassed Spanish troops Opened Dykes to frustrate Spanish occupation Spain responded with the Spanish Fury (Nov 4, 1576) – Sacked Antwerp & slaughter about 7,000 people – Ended Antwerp’s commercial supremacy
For years, civil war raged in the Netherlands between Catholics and Protestants and between the seventeen provinces and Spain Pacification of Ghent (Nov 8, 1576): – In 1576, the 17 provinces united under the leadership of Prince William I of Orange – Too many difference though, agreement was tenuous at best
Two groups split off in 1579: – Union of Utrecht Calvinist Northern territories – Union of Arras Catholic Southern territories International Intervention – England supported Calvinists in 1580’s Connect to Spanish Armada storyline – Some wanted French King’s brother to rule the territory
Spain all but kicked out in the 1590’s Philip II died in 1598 Philip II continued conflict… but by 1604 Spain was broke and weary of war 1606 Spain recognized Northern provinces as independent – Called them the United Provinces 1609 Northern Calvinists & Southern Catholics sign a truce 1648 Peace of Westphalia made agreements official