Presentation on theme: "The Protestant Revolt of the Netherlands"— Presentation transcript:
1The Protestant Revolt of the Netherlands Netherlands vs. SpainAnd Phillip II
2Abdication of Charles V HRE CV stepped down in 1556 after the Peace of AugsburgRelinquished all titles, including HRE, King of Spain, the 17 provinces of the Netherlands and the Free County of Burgundy
3Ferdinand I, brother of CV CV left Austria, Bohemia and Hungary to his brother Ferdinand ISubsequently Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor
7The Ambition of Phillip II Phillip was first and foremost a CatholicHis Palace, the Escorial was built in the shape of a grill in honor of St. Lawrence who had been martyred in that fashion.He took it upon himself to head up a Catholic counter offensive to the Protestant ReformationSpain could fund such an attack with the riches from the new world; Potosi, Peru.
8Thoughtful QuestionWhy did the Netherlands revolt against Phillip II and not his father Phillip II?Charles V was from Flanders, which is in the region of the Netherlands-he was one of them.Phillip was thought of as a foreign King, a Spaniard who lived in Spain.After 1560 Spanish officials and troops were seen more frequently in the NetherlandsAlso after 1560 many Calvinists fled to the Netherlands to escape the religious wars in France.
9Political and religious revolt The revolt began n 1566 when 200 nobles of the various 17 provinces founded a league to check the “foreign” influence in the Netherlands.The league consisted of both Catholics AND Calvinists-they asked Phillip not to send the inquisition to the NetherlandsPhillips agents refused the petition
11Revolt begins 1566 With the petition denied a mass revolt broke out The Calvinist faction destroyed some 400 Catholic ChurchesMany of the Nobles that had signed the original petition were disgusted with the violence
12Council of Troubles (blood) Phillip II, appalled by sacrilege sent in the inquisition, Spanish troops and the Duke of AlvaAlva’s Council sentenced thousands to death, confiscated Nobles estates-both Catholic and CalvinistDuke of Alva
13By 1576, representatives of all 17 provinces formed a union to drive out the Spanish What error did the Spanish make that led to this Netherland wide revolt?Do you think the English will get involved? If so, why?
14Yes, England did get involved English feared the Spanish movement into the Netherlands-”the pistol pointed at the heart of England”England’s involvement was evolutionary
16Elizabeth IQEI had lent money to the Netherlands from the very beginning-but secretlyShe did not want to provoke war with SpainQEI had problems at home and she was not event sure if her own subjects would support herDuke of NorfolkMary, Queen of ScotsThe security of Elizabethan Protestant England rested on the outcome of the fighting in the Netherlands
17The Prince of ParmaIN 1578 Alexander Farnese, the Prince of Parma became the Spanish General of the NetherlandsRallied the southern 10 provinces to his sideThe 7 northern provinces, led by Holland, formed the Union of Utrecht in 1579
19Spain to AntwerpWhen Parma moved his troops onto Antwerp, QEI openly entered the warSpain now believed that the Netherlands could only be subdued by defeating EnglandThe Queen of the “heretics” must be dethronedPhillip II prepared to invade England
20Spanish Armada 1588As Phillip prepared to invade the English Parliament called for the execution of Mary, Queen of ScotsThe Spanish Armada was unsuccessfulEnglish led by Sir Francis DrakeThe Protestant wind
21Results of the Struggle English assured their national independenceThey became more solidly ProtestantWith the defeat of the Spanish Armada, the English were more free to take to the sea17 provinces officially broken into Spanish Netherlands and the Dutch Netherlands (Holland)
22French Wars of Religion France had remained a predominantly catholic Country of a population of 16 million, 1.2 million were CalvinistConflict between Huguenots and CatholicsReligion + politics (Nobles chose Calvinism to separate from King)Henry II died in tournament
23French Civil war cont.Henry’s teenage sons (Francis II, Charles IX, Henry III) dominated by Catherine de’ MediciOpen warfare between Catholics and Huguenots broke out in 1562.The Guise family led the catholic causeThe Bourbon family led the Hueguenots
24St. Bartholomew day massacre August 24,1572Catherine ordered the massacre of the HuguenotsHenry of Navarre 1589“Paris is worth a Mass”Edict of Nantes 1598
2530 years war 1618-1648 Origin of the Conflict Peace of Augsburg brought temporary truce in the religious conflict in the German States-only included Lutherans and Catholics, not Calvinists
26Bohemian Phase 1618-1625 Ferdinand II of Styria Calvinist revolt Defenestration of PragueFrederick V Elector of PalantineBattle of white mountainFrederick V the winter KIng
27Danish Phase 1625-1629 Christian IV Protestant ruler of Denmark Albert of WallensteinEdict of Restitution 1629
28Swedish periodGustavus AdolphusTreaty of Prague 1635