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Presentation on theme: "ECOLOGY."— Presentation transcript:


2 Ecology Definition: the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment Branch of biology that was developed from natural history Study reveals the relationships between living and non-living parts of the world

3 Biosphere Definition: portion of Earth that supports life
Goes from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean Supports a wide variety of organisms

4 Factors Involved Abiotic: non-living part of an organisms environment
Air, temperature, moisture, soil, light Biotic: all the living organisms that inhabit an environment

5 Levels of Ecology Organism: living member of species
Population: group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time

6 Levels of Ecology Community: collection of interacting populations
Ecosystem: made up of interactions among populations in a community and the communities physical surroundings

7 Example…… In a desert Organism: coyote Population: pack of coyotes
Community: pack of coyotes, hawks, owls, snakes, scorpions, & reptiles Ecosystem: populations of animals listed above, cacti, shrubs, sand dunes, climate, rocks, temperature

8 In an ecosystem Habitat: a place where an organism lives out its life
Niche: the role and position a species has in its environment How it eats? How it survives? How it reproduces?

9 Succession Primary Succession: colonization of new sites by communities of organisms Secondary Succession: sequence of community changes that take place after its disrupted by natural disasters or human action

10 Relationships Symbiosis: when species, alike or different, live together Commensalism: one species benefits and the other is neither harmed or benefited Like when moss (or plants) grow on a tree

11 Relationships Mutualism: both species benefit
Acacia trees and ants, never found apart Parasitism: one species derives a benefit from the other Fleas and ticks

12 Nutrition Autotrophs: organisms that manufacture their own nutrients using stored energy or energy from the sun Heterotrophs: cannot make their own food, they feed on autotrophs or other heterotrophs

13 Types of Heterotrophs Herbivores: feed on plants
Rabbits, grasshoppers, squirrels, etc Carnivores: feed on other animals Lions, snakes, wolves, etc Scavengers: feed on dead animals Vultures Decomposers: break down and absorb nutrients from dead organisms Fungi and algae

14 Energy Flow Food Chain: simple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem Algae Fish Heron Trophic Level: each organisms in a food chain represents a feeding step 1st step 2nd step 3rd step

15 Energy Flow Food web: expresses all the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community Page 53

16 Communities Limiting factors: factors that affect an organisms ability to survive in its environment Food availability, predators, temperature Succession: changes over time, species and environment replacements

17 Biomes Definition: large group of ecosystems that share the same community Freshwater, marine, and terrestrial

18 Marine Biomes Separated into two zones for easier study
Aphotic: deeper water that never recieves sunlight Photic: portion of marine biome shallow enough for light to penetrate Tides cause water levels to change

19 Marine Biomes Hundreds of different types of organisms live in the oceans From marine plankton in shallow waters to the humpback whales in the deep sea the ocean is full of biodiversity


21 Freshwater Biomes Home to different kinds of plants and organisms
Tadpoles, turtles, insects, lilies, shrubs As depth increases, less light penetrates – no photosynthesis and no plants, decomposers at the bottom recycle nutrients


23 Terrestrial Biomes As you move north, south, east, and west around the world temperature, precipitation, and surroundings change

24 Tundra Temperature: long summer days and short periods of winter
Plant Life: shallow rooted grasses, small plants Soil: underneath soil is called permafrost Animals: mosquitoes, lemmings, weasels, foxes, owls, hawks, oxen, caribou, reindeer


26 Taiga Temperature: long severe winters, short summers
Plant Life: large fir trees, hemlocks, and spruce trees Soil: peat swamp habitat Animals: lynx, snowshoe hares, caribou – like the tundra


28 Desert Temperature: arid, dry, hot
Plant Life: almost nonexistent, cacti Soil: dry, sand dunes Animals: coytoes, hawks, owls, snakes, scorpions, and reptiles


30 Grassland occupies more area than any other biome
Temperature: dry Plant Life: grass roots, oats, rye, wheat Soil: humus content high, sod underneath Animals: bison, wolves, coyotes, rodents, birds, reptiles


32 Temperate Forest Temperature: cool winters and summers there is moderate rainfall Plant Life: hardwood trees Soil: top layer humus, clay below Animals: squirrels, mice, rabbits, deer, birds, bears


34 Tropical Rainforest Temperature: warm temperature, wet surroundings
Plant Life: deciduous trees, forest plants, lush growth Soil: thick wet mat on surface Animals: amazing amount of biodiversity


36 Populations Population Growth: increase in the size of a population over time Does not grow linear, J-shaped growth Exponential Growth: as the population gets larger it grows faster

37 Population Growth Growth of Houseflies Population Size Time

38 Can a population of organisms grow indefinitely?

39 Populations (cont) Carrying capacity: the number of organisms of one species that an environment can support Under: births exceed deaths Over: deaths exceed births

40 Environmental Influences
Density-dependent factors: disease, competition, parasite, and food Density-independent factors: (abiotic) temperature, storms, flood, drought, and habitat disruption

41 Demography Definition: the study of human population growth characteristics Study growth rate, age structure, and geographic distribution

42 Population Vocabulary
Growth rate: the difference between the birthrate and the death rate Fertility rate: the number of offspring a female produces during her reproductive years when high – population grows fast

43 Population Vocabulary
Age structure: proportions of a population that are of different levels Depicted in graphs Used to predict if a population is growing rapidly, slowly, or not at all

44 Mobility Immigration: movement of individuals into a population
Emigration: movement out of a population

45 Population Game We will simulate a population today. Each person will imitate a particular trophic level. Make sure that you read your “survival cards” before playing. They will be necessary to help you stay alive.

46 Wildebeests (10 students)
Population Game Food Chain Lions (2 students) Hyenas (6 students) Wildebeests (10 students) Grass (13 students)

47 Population Game Rules Make sure that you get all your energy tokens and water tickets. Be careful of how many energy tokens you lose catching prey. Upon catching prey – return to Miss Pfeiffer and cash in energy token.

48 Population Game Rules (2)
NO TACKLING OR FIGHTING. Stay within the boundaries of the “ecosystem”. Be sure to follow directions as far as eating different trophic levels.

49 Biodiversity Definition: variety of life in an area
Islands tend to have higher biodiversity Includes all forms of life, plant and organism

50 Importance of Biodiversity
Nature: life depends on life When organisms are removed it affects other organisms Must have sufficient numbers in trophic levels

51 Importance of Biodiversity
People: humans depend on organisms for their needs Oxygen is supplied and CO2 is removed by plants Diet – beef, chicken, tuna, shrimp, pork, etc. Health – antibiotics supplied by plants

52 Threats to Biodiversity
Habitat loss Habitat fragmentation Abiotic and Biotic Issues Habitat Degredation Water and land pollution

53 Conservation of Biodiversity
Conservation Biology: field of biology that studies methods and implements plans to protect biodiversity Relatively new field of biology Legal protection for endangered species implemented by government

54 Water Cycle

55 Water Cycle #2

56 Carbon Cycle

57 Nitrogen Cycle

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