2EcologyDefinition: the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environmentBranch of biology that was developed from natural historyStudy reveals the relationships between living and non-living parts of the world
3Biosphere Definition: portion of Earth that supports life Goes from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the oceanSupports a wide variety of organisms
4Factors Involved Abiotic: non-living part of an organisms environment Air, temperature, moisture, soil, lightBiotic: all the living organisms that inhabit an environment
5Levels of Ecology Organism: living member of species Population: group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time
6Levels of Ecology Community: collection of interacting populations Ecosystem: made up of interactions among populations in a community and the communities physical surroundings
7Example…… In a desert Organism: coyote Population: pack of coyotes Community: pack of coyotes, hawks, owls, snakes, scorpions, & reptilesEcosystem: populations of animals listed above, cacti, shrubs, sand dunes, climate, rocks, temperature
8In an ecosystem Habitat: a place where an organism lives out its life Niche: the role and position a species has in its environmentHow it eats?How it survives?How it reproduces?
9SuccessionPrimary Succession: colonization of new sites by communities of organismsSecondary Succession: sequence of community changes that take place after its disrupted by natural disasters or human action
10RelationshipsSymbiosis: when species, alike or different, live togetherCommensalism: one species benefits and the other is neither harmed or benefitedLike when moss (or plants) grow on a tree
11Relationships Mutualism: both species benefit Acacia trees and ants, never found apartParasitism: one species derives a benefit from the otherFleas and ticks
12NutritionAutotrophs: organisms that manufacture their own nutrients using stored energy or energy from the sunHeterotrophs: cannot make their own food, they feed on autotrophs or other heterotrophs
13Types of Heterotrophs Herbivores: feed on plants Rabbits, grasshoppers, squirrels, etcCarnivores: feed on other animalsLions, snakes, wolves, etcScavengers: feed on dead animalsVulturesDecomposers: break down and absorb nutrients from dead organismsFungi and algae
14Energy FlowFood Chain: simple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystemAlgae Fish HeronTrophic Level: each organisms in a food chain represents a feeding step1st step 2nd step 3rd step
15Energy FlowFood web: expresses all the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a communityPage 53
16CommunitiesLimiting factors: factors that affect an organisms ability to survive in its environmentFood availability, predators, temperatureSuccession: changes over time, species and environment replacements
17BiomesDefinition: large group of ecosystems that share the same communityFreshwater, marine, and terrestrial
18Marine Biomes Separated into two zones for easier study Aphotic: deeper water that never recieves sunlightPhotic: portion of marine biome shallow enough for light to penetrateTides cause water levels to change
19Marine BiomesHundreds of different types of organisms live in the oceansFrom marine plankton in shallow waters to the humpback whales in the deep sea the ocean is full of biodiversity
21Freshwater Biomes Home to different kinds of plants and organisms Tadpoles, turtles, insects, lilies, shrubsAs depth increases, less light penetrates – no photosynthesis and no plants, decomposers at the bottom recycle nutrients
23Terrestrial BiomesAs you move north, south, east, and west around the world temperature, precipitation, and surroundings change
24Tundra Temperature: long summer days and short periods of winter Plant Life: shallow rooted grasses, small plantsSoil: underneath soil is called permafrostAnimals: mosquitoes, lemmings, weasels, foxes, owls, hawks, oxen, caribou, reindeer
36PopulationsPopulation Growth: increase in the size of a population over timeDoes not grow linear, J-shaped growthExponential Growth: as the population gets larger it grows faster
37Population GrowthGrowth of HousefliesPopulation SizeTime
38Can a population of organisms grow indefinitely?
39Populations (cont)Carrying capacity: the number of organisms of one species that an environment can supportUnder: births exceed deathsOver: deaths exceed births
40Environmental Influences Density-dependent factors: disease, competition, parasite, and foodDensity-independent factors: (abiotic) temperature, storms, flood, drought, and habitat disruption
41DemographyDefinition: the study of human population growth characteristicsStudy growth rate, age structure, and geographic distribution
42Population Vocabulary Growth rate: the difference between the birthrate and the death rateFertility rate: the number of offspring a female produces during her reproductive yearswhen high – population grows fast
43Population Vocabulary Age structure: proportions of a population that are of different levelsDepicted in graphsUsed to predict if a population is growing rapidly, slowly, or not at all
44Mobility Immigration: movement of individuals into a population Emigration: movement out of a population
45Population GameWe will simulate a population today. Each person will imitate a particular trophic level.Make sure that you read your “survival cards” before playing. They will be necessary to help you stay alive.
47Population Game RulesMake sure that you get all your energy tokens and water tickets.Be careful of how many energy tokens you lose catching prey.Upon catching prey – return to Miss Pfeiffer and cash in energy token.
48Population Game Rules (2) NO TACKLING OR FIGHTING.Stay within the boundaries of the “ecosystem”.Be sure to follow directions as far as eating different trophic levels.
49Biodiversity Definition: variety of life in an area Islands tend to have higher biodiversityIncludes all forms of life, plant and organism
50Importance of Biodiversity Nature: life depends on lifeWhen organisms are removed it affects other organismsMust have sufficient numbers in trophic levels
51Importance of Biodiversity People: humans depend on organisms for their needsOxygen is supplied and CO2 is removed by plantsDiet – beef, chicken, tuna, shrimp, pork, etc.Health – antibiotics supplied by plants
52Threats to Biodiversity Habitat lossHabitat fragmentationAbiotic and Biotic IssuesHabitat DegredationWater and land pollution
53Conservation of Biodiversity Conservation Biology: field of biology that studies methods and implements plans to protect biodiversityRelatively new field of biologyLegal protection for endangered species implemented by government