2 Ecology What do you mean by environment? the study of interactions between organisms and their environmentsWhat do you mean by environment?The environment is made up of two factors:Biotic factors- all living organisms inhabiting the EarthAbiotic factors- nonliving parts of the environment (i.e. temperature, soil, light, moisture, air currents)What do you think about when I say ecology? Recycling? Acid rain?
3 Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Organism Just like with classification, ecology is hierarchal. Each level builds on itself and they fit together like nesting boxes.PopulationOrganism
4 The lowest level of organization Organismany unicellular or multicellular form exhibiting all of the characteristics of life, an individual.The lowest level of organizationThe lowest level is the individual. The organism. Here we see a salmon and a bear as examples of organisms. REMINDER: organisms die, species go extint
5 Populationa group of organisms of one species living in the same place at the same time that interbreed and compete with each other for resources ( food, Water, mates, shelter)The next level is a population. A population consists of a single species living together and breeding. Give me an example of a population. Ex. large mouth bass living in Lake Meade. Beetles living under the same log. Here we have salmon spwning and two bears fishing.
6 Communityseveral interacting populations that inhabit a common environment and are interdependent.Next level is a community which is several populations living together and depending on each other. What does interdependent mean? An example of a community is shown here with the bear and the salmon. They both live in a common environment and the bear needs the fish for food? How does the salmon need the bear?
7 Ecosystempopulations in a community and the abiotic factors with which they interactex. marine, terrestrial
8 The highest level of organization Biospherelife supporting portions of Earth composed of air, land, fresh water, and salt water.The highest level of organizationThe Biospher is composed of many BiomesLets review. Organisms make up populations, populations make up communities, communities and abiotic factors make up ecosystems, and all of the ecosystems make up the biosphere. From one to many and each depending on the other.
9 Land BiomesBiome- geographic areas that have similar climates and ecosystemsThe 6 most common biomes are:TundraTaigaTemperate Deciduous ForestTropical Rain ForestGrasslandDesert
10 Habitat vs. NicheHabitat- the place in which an organism lives out its life (address)Niche - the role a species plays in a community (job)A niche is determined by a limiting factor.Limiting factor- any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence of organisms in a specific environment.Examples of limiting factors-Amount of water, food, Temperature“The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does. By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organism's ‘address’, and the niche is its ‘profession’, biologically speaking.”Although several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
11 Feeding Relationships There are 3 main types of feeding relationshipsProducer- ConsumerPredator- PreyParasite- HostProducer- all autotrophs (plants), they trap energy from the sun to make food (sugar).Bottom of the food chainHow do they trap the sun’s energy? Through what process? What is that process similar to in animal cells?
12 Consumers- all heterotrophs: they ingest food containing the sun’s energy HerbivoresCarnivores / ScavangersOmnivoresDecomposersEat plantsPrimary consumersPrey animalsEnergy moves up the food chain through the producer/consumer relationship.
13 Carnivores Scavengers Omnivores Feed on carrion, dead animals eat meatPredatorsHunt prey animals for food.ScavengersFeed on carrion, dead animalsOmnivoreseat both plants and animalsDecomposersBreakdown the complex compounds of dead and decaying plants and animalsScavengers are a type of carnivore that eat dead animals, or carrion. Vultures, hyenas, crabs, deep sea fish-talk about distance from the sun and must eat the dead things that sink to the bottom, bottom feeders
14 Symbiotic Relationships Symbiosis- two species living together 3 Types of symbiosis:CommensalismParasitismMutualismCleaning shrimp
15 Trophic Levels Food chain Each link in a food chain is known as a trophic level.Trophic levels represent a feeding step in the transfer of energy and matter in an ecosystem.Food chainsimple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem
16 E N R G Y Trophic Levels Producers- Autotrophs Tertiary consumers- top carnivoresSecondary consumers-small carnivoresPrimary consumers- HerbivoresProducers- Autotrophs
18 Food webshows all possible feeding relationships in a community at each trophic levelRepresents a network of interconnected food chainsFood chain Food web(just 1 path of energy) (all possible energy paths)
20 Three Key Features of Populations Size Density Dispersion Population DynamicsThree Key Features of PopulationsSizeDensityDispersionClumpedEven/UniformrandomAlthough several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
21 Size: number of individuals in an area Growth Rate: How many individuals are born vs. how many dieBirth Rate (natality) - Death Rate (mortality) = rate of natural increasePOST-REPRODUCTIVEREPRODUCTIVEAlthough several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.PRE-REPRODUCTIVE
22 Density: measurement of population per unit area or unit volume Pop. Density = # of individuals ÷ unit of space4 Factors that affect densityImmigration- movement of individuals into a populationEmigration- movement of individuals out of a populationDensity-dependent factors- Biotic factors in the environment that have an increasing effect as population size increasesEx. Disease, competitionDensity-independent factors- Abiotic factors in the environment that affect populations.Ex. temperature, storms, habitat destruction, droughtAlthough several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
24 Factors That Affect Future Population Growth Immigration++-PopulationMortalityBirth-Emigration
25 Other factors that affect population growth Limiting factorany biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence of organisms in a specific environment.Amount of water, food, temperature, predationFew organisms presentNoneFew organisms presentNoneMany organisms presentLimiting Factor- Zone of Tolerance
26 Carrying Capacitythe maximum population size that can be supported by the available resourcesThere can only be as many organisms as the environmental resources can supportS-shaped curve (logistic growth)NumberAlthough several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.Carrying Capacity (k)J-shaped curve (exponential growth)Time
27 Nutrient CyclesCycling maintains homeostasis (balance) in the environment.3 cycles to investigate:Water cycleCarbon cycleNitrogen cycle
28 Water cycle –Evaporation, transpiration, condensation,precipitation
29 Carbon cycle -Photosynthesis and respiration cycle carbon and oxygen through the environment.
30 Nitrogen cycle - Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) makes up nearly 80% of air. Organisms can not use it in that form.Lightning and bacteria convert nitrogen into usable forms.Nitrogen fixation-convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonium (NH4+) which can be used