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Biomes Definition: large region characterized by a specific kind of climate and certain kinds of plant and animal communities They can be freshwater, marine.

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Presentation on theme: "Biomes Definition: large region characterized by a specific kind of climate and certain kinds of plant and animal communities They can be freshwater, marine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomes Definition: large region characterized by a specific kind of climate and certain kinds of plant and animal communities They can be freshwater, marine (saltwater), terrestrial, temperate, tropical, etc…

2 Biomes Temperature and precipitation are the two key factors of climate that determine biomes –Climate: the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time Most organisms have adapted to live within a particular range of temperatures –Would you find a polar bear living in Brazil? A naked mole rat in Alaska? A salamander in the desert? –Adaptations for an organisms habitat are important to their survival!

3 Kinds of Biomes Terrestrial –Tropical –Temperate –High-Latitude Aquatic –Marine (Saltwater) –Freshwater Wetlands Estuaries

4 Major Biomes of The World

5 Aquatic Biomes: Marine Examples: –Kelp forests, tidal pools, coral reefs, sea grass beds, etc Animals adapted to deal with high salt concentrations, water temperatures Phytoplankton serves as the base of these biomes Large predators include whales, sharks, and dolphins

6 Aquatic Biomes: Marine

7 Aquatic Biomes: Freshwater Lakes, rivers, ponds, streams Wide variety of plants and animals –Fish, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, grasses and shrubs As depth increases, less light available –no photosynthesis and no plants, decomposers at the bottom recycle nutrients

8 Estuaries –Area where freshwater mixes with salt water –Usually where a river empties into the ocean –Very productive ecosystems because they are always receiving fresh nutrients from the river AND the ocean Aquatic Biomes: Freshwater

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10 Wetlands –Area that is flooded or saturated for most of the year Bogs, marshes, swamps –Transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic habitats –Provide homes for LOTS of types of organisms –Act as flood protection for lower lying areas –Act as buffer zone or filter for pollutants Aquatic Biomes: Freshwater

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12 Terrestrial Biomes Major terrestrial biomes can be grouped by latitude –Tropical Near the equator –Temperate Between 30° and 60° latitude –High-latitude 60° and higher: polar regions

13 Terrestrial Biomes: Tundra Climate: long summer days and short periods of winter. Very little rain Plant Life: shallow rooted grasses, mosses, and lichens. Few trees because of lack of water and growing season Soil: shallow, most moisture not available since its frozen for most of the year--permafrost Animals: mosquitoes, lemmings, weasels, foxes, owls, hawks, oxen, caribou, reindeer

14 Terrestrial Biomes: Tundra

15 Terrestrial Biomes: Taiga World's largest terrestrial biome Climate: long severe winters, short summers Plant Life: mostly evergreen trees with some deciduous trees Soil: thin and nutrient poor due to long term cold temperatures. High acid content due to fallen evergreen needles Animals: bears, foxes, lynx, wolves, caribou, moose, birds of prey

16 Terrestrial Biomes: Taiga

17 Terrestrial Biomes: Temperate Forest Climate: cool/cold winters and warm summers with plenty of rain Plant Life: deciduous trees in lower latitudes, evergreen trees in higher latitudes Soil: fertile, enriched with decaying litter Animals: squirrels, rabbits, skunks, birds, deer, mountain lion, bobcat, timber wolf, fox, and black bear Adaptations: bears and some rodents store up fat, and then hibernate during the cold winters. Birds and fish migrate to the south to escape temperatures that can be below zero

18 Terrestrial Biomes: Temperate Forest

19 Terrestrial Biomes: Tropical Rainforest Climate: warm temperature, lots of rain –Two seasons: wet and dry Plant Life: LOTS of different tree species, orchids, bromeliads, vines, ferns, mosses, etc Soil: thick wet mat on surface, most nutrients concentrated right at surface Animals: amazing amount of biodiversity –Layers of the forest contribute to biodiversity –At least HALF the earths species live in the rainforest –Still many, many undiscovered species

20 Terrestrial Biomes: Tropical Rainforest

21 Terrestrial Biomes: Grasslands Can be tropical (savannas) or temperate (praries/steppes/pamas) Climate: Dry. Usually experiences all 4 seasons Plant Life: Grasses and other non-woody plants; some trees Soil: Nutrient rich Animals: bison, coyotes, rodents, birds, reptiles, large herbivores

22 Terrestrial Biomes: Grasslands

23 Terrestrial Biomes: Deserts Climate: dry, can be temperate (Great Basin Desert and SW US) or tropical (Sahara, parts of S America) Plant Life: almost nonexistent, cacti. In temperate deserts wildflowers bloom seasonally Soil: dry, rocky, sandy Animals: coyotes, hawks, owls, snakes, lizards, spiders, scorpions –Animals adapted for life with little water, can get most of the water they need from food they eat

24 Terrestrial Biomes: Deserts


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