Presentation on theme: "Biomes Definition: large region characterized by a specific kind of climate and certain kinds of plant and animal communities They can be freshwater,"— Presentation transcript:
1 BiomesDefinition: large region characterized by a specific kind of climate and certain kinds of plant and animal communitiesThey can be freshwater, marine (saltwater), terrestrial, temperate, tropical, etc…
2 BiomesTemperature and precipitation are the two key factors of climate that determine biomesClimate: the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of timeMost organisms have adapted to live within a particular range of temperaturesWould you find a polar bear living in Brazil? A naked mole rat in Alaska? A salamander in the desert?Adaptations for an organism’s habitat are important to their survival!
3 Kinds of Biomes Aquatic Terrestrial Marine (Saltwater) Tropical FreshwaterWetlandsEstuariesTerrestrialTropicalTemperateHigh-Latitude
5 Aquatic Biomes: Marine Examples:Kelp forests, tidal pools, coral reefs, sea grass beds, etcAnimals adapted to deal with high salt concentrations, water temperaturesPhytoplankton serves as the base of these biomesLarge predators include whales, sharks, and dolphins
7 Aquatic Biomes: Freshwater Lakes, rivers, ponds, streamsWide variety of plants and animalsFish, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, grasses and shrubsAs depth increases, less light availableno photosynthesis and no plants, decomposers at the bottom recycle nutrients
8 Aquatic Biomes: Freshwater EstuariesArea where freshwater mixes with salt waterUsually where a river empties into the oceanVery productive ecosystems because they are always receiving fresh nutrients from the river AND the ocean
10 Aquatic Biomes: Freshwater WetlandsArea that is flooded or saturated for most of the yearBogs, marshes, swampsTransition zone between terrestrial and aquatic habitatsProvide homes for LOTS of types of organismsAct as “flood protection” for lower lying areasAct as “buffer zone” or “filter” for pollutants
12 Terrestrial Biomes Major terrestrial biomes can be grouped by latitude TropicalNear the equatorTemperateBetween 30° and 60° latitudeHigh-latitude60° and higher: polar regions
13 Terrestrial Biomes: Tundra Climate: long summer days and short periods of winter. Very little rainPlant Life: shallow rooted grasses, mosses, and lichens. Few trees because of lack of water and growing seasonSoil: shallow, most moisture not available since it’s frozen for most of the year--permafrostAnimals: mosquitoes, lemmings, weasels, foxes, owls, hawks, oxen, caribou, reindeer
15 Terrestrial Biomes: Taiga World's largest terrestrial biomeClimate: long severe winters, short summersPlant Life: mostly evergreen trees with some deciduous treesSoil: thin and nutrient poor due to long term cold temperatures. High acid content due to fallen evergreen needlesAnimals: bears, foxes, lynx, wolves, caribou, moose, birds of prey
17 Terrestrial Biomes: Temperate Forest Climate: cool/cold winters and warm summers with plenty of rainPlant Life: deciduous trees in lower latitudes, evergreen trees in higher latitudesSoil: fertile, enriched with decaying litterAnimals: squirrels, rabbits, skunks, birds, deer, mountain lion, bobcat, timber wolf, fox, and black bearAdaptations: bears and some rodents store up fat, and then hibernate during the cold winters. Birds and fish migrate to the south to escape temperatures that can be below zero
19 Terrestrial Biomes: Tropical Rainforest Climate: warm temperature, lots of rainTwo seasons: wet and dryPlant Life: LOTS of different tree species, orchids, bromeliads, vines, ferns, mosses, etcSoil: thick wet mat on surface, most nutrients concentrated right at surfaceAnimals: amazing amount of biodiversityLayers of the forest contribute to biodiversityAt least HALF the earth’s species live in the rainforestStill many, many undiscovered species
21 Terrestrial Biomes: Grasslands Can be tropical (savannas) or temperate (praries/steppes/pamas)Climate: Dry. Usually experiences all 4 seasonsPlant Life: Grasses and other non-woody plants; some treesSoil: Nutrient richAnimals: bison, coyotes, rodents, birds, reptiles, large herbivores
23 Terrestrial Biomes: Deserts Climate: dry, can be temperate (Great Basin Desert and SW US) or tropical (Sahara, parts of S America)Plant Life: almost nonexistent, cacti. In temperate deserts wildflowers bloom seasonallySoil: dry, rocky, sandyAnimals: coyotes, hawks, owls, snakes, lizards, spiders, scorpionsAnimals adapted for life with little water, can get most of the water they need from food they eat
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