Presentation on theme: "Ecology Definition: the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment –Branch of biology that was developed from natural history."— Presentation transcript:
Ecology Definition: the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment –Branch of biology that was developed from natural history –Study reveals the relationships between living and non-living parts of the world
Ecology Abiotic –Physical factor such as: air, temperature, moisture, soil, light –These factors make up an organisms habitat Habitat: the area where an organism lives Biotic: –All living or once living components of an ecosystem –Includes dead organisms and the waste of organisms The environment is divided into living and non living parts:
Levels of Organization in Ecology Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Organism To help ecologists understand the interactions of the biotic and abiotic parts of the world, scientists have organized the living world into levels:
Levels of Organization Biosphere –The part of the Earths covering where life is possible Goes from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean; about 12 miles high! Supports a wide variety of organisms If the earth were shrunk to apple size, the biosphere would be thinner than the apple skin
Levels of Organization Ecosystem –A community of organisms and their living and non living surrounds Living components of an ecosystem are the biotic factors Non living components of an ecosystem are the abiotic factors
Levels of Organization Community –A group of various species that live in the same habitat and interact with each other Population –group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time Organism –living member of species
Levels of Organization In a desert….. Organism: coyote Population: pack of coyotes Community: pack of coyotes, hawks, owls, snakes, scorpions, & reptiles Ecosystem: populations of animals listed above, cacti, shrubs, sand dunes, climate, rocks, temperature Biosphere: the earth
Biodiversity Includes: –The variety of organisms within a given area –The genetic variation within a population –The variety of species in a community –The variety of communities in an ecosystem –Both abiotic and biotic factors help to determine the biodiversity of an area
In an Ecosystem Habitat: a place where an organism lives out its life Niche: the specific role and position a species has in its environment. –Organisms may share parts of their niche, but never the whole thing!
In an Ecosystem Fundamental Niche: the entire range of conditions where a species can survive –Shaped by competition for resources between species Realized Niche: the actual niche that an organism occupies within an ecosystem The establishment of a niche allows for several organisms to live in the same habitat while reducing competition for resources!!
Changes in an Ecosystem Succession: the replacement of one community by another at a single location over a period of time First organisms to appear are pioneer organisms –Primary Succession occurs after natural disasters Volcanic eruptions, fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, etc –Secondary Succession occurs after HUMAN involvement Clearing of land for development, clear cutting the forest, etc
Symbiosis –Two species live in close association with each other. Can be positive or negative Mutualism: both species benefit –Ex: cleaner shrimp/fish Commensalism: one species benefits, the other does not, but is not harmed –Ex: orchids growing on trees Parasitism: one species is helped while the other is hurt –Ex: Ticks on a dog. –The tick is the parasite and the dog is the host Relationships in an Ecosystem