Presentation on theme: "Ecology Definition: the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment Branch of biology that was developed from natural history."— Presentation transcript:
1 EcologyDefinition: the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environmentBranch of biology that was developed from natural historyStudy reveals the relationships between living and non-living parts of the world
2 Ecology Abiotic Biotic: The environment is divided into living and non living parts:AbioticPhysical factor such as: air, temperature, moisture, soil, lightThese factors make up an organism’s habitatHabitat: the area where an organism livesBiotic:All living or once living components of an ecosystemIncludes dead organisms and the waste of organisms
3 Levels of Organization in Ecology To help ecologists understand the interactions of the biotic and abiotic parts of the world, scientists have organized the living world into levels:BiosphereEcosystemCommunityPopulationOrganism
4 Levels of Organization BiosphereThe part of the Earth’s covering where life is possibleGoes from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean; about 12 miles high!Supports a wide variety of organismsIf the earth were shrunk to apple size, the biosphere would be thinner than the apple skin
5 Levels of Organization EcosystemA community of organisms and their living and non living surroundsLiving components of an ecosystem are the biotic factorsNon living components of an ecosystem are the abiotic factors
6 Levels of Organization CommunityA group of various species that live in the same habitat and interact with each otherPopulationgroup of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same timeOrganismliving member of species
7 Levels of Organization In a desert…..Organism: coyotePopulation: pack of coyotesCommunity: pack of coyotes, hawks, owls, snakes, scorpions, & reptilesEcosystem: populations of animals listed above, cacti, shrubs, sand dunes, climate, rocks, temperatureBiosphere: the earth
8 Biodiversity Includes: The variety of organisms within a given area The genetic variation within a populationThe variety of species in a communityThe variety of communities in an ecosystemBoth abiotic and biotic factors help to determine the biodiversity of an area
9 In an Ecosystem Habitat: a place where an organism lives out its life Niche: the specific role and position a species has in its environment.Organisms may share parts of their niche, but never the whole thing!
10 In an EcosystemFundamental Niche: the entire range of conditions where a species can surviveShaped by competition for resources between speciesRealized Niche: the actual niche that an organism occupies within an ecosystemThe establishment of a niche allows for several organisms to live in the same habitat while reducing competition for resources!!
11 Changes in an Ecosystem Succession: the replacement of one community by another at a single location over a period of timeFirst organisms to appear are pioneer organismsPrimary Succession occurs after natural disastersVolcanic eruptions, fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, etcSecondary Succession occurs after HUMAN involvementClearing of land for development, clear cutting the forest, etc
12 Relationships in an Ecosystem SymbiosisTwo species live in close association with each other. Can be positive or negativeMutualism: both species benefitEx: cleaner shrimp/fishCommensalism: one species benefits, the other does not, but is not harmedEx: orchids growing on treesParasitism: one species is helped while the other is hurtEx: Ticks on a dog.The tick is the parasite and the dog is the host