Presentation on theme: "Beginnings of Civilization 4 million B.C. –450 B.C. Unit 1."— Presentation transcript:
Beginnings of Civilization 4 million B.C. –450 B.C. Unit 1
I.Human Origins in Africa A.Earliest humans discovered in Tanzania East Africa 1.Artifacts: human made objects that help in understanding history 2.Culture: peoples unique way of life studied by anthropologists 3.Hominid: humans and other creatures that walk upright B. Stone Ages 1.Paleolithic Age: Old Stone Age, (2.5 mil to 8000 B.C.) 2.Neolithic Age: New Stone Age, (8000 B.C. to 3000 B.C.)
Human Origins in Africa (contd) 3.Neanderthals: smaller brains, cave man 4.Cro-Magnons: fully modern humans C. Humans advance 1.Nomads: highly mobile 2.hunter-gatherers: food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plants 3.Neolithic Age: agricultural revolution 4.Slash-and -burn farming: cut grasses and burned them to clear a field. 5.Domestication: taming of animals
II. Mesopotamia (Fertile Crescent) --land between the rivers --between Tigris River and Euphrates River --unpredictable flooding --no natural boundaries --limited natural resources --women had rights
Mesopotamia (contd) A.Government: city-states like independent countries B.Religion: polytheism --belief in more than one god C.Accomplishments: 1.Hammurabis Code 2.Empire builders 3.Cuneiform 4.Ziggurats D. Decline: overtaken by new groups/breaks up
Hammurabis Code Hammurabis Code of Laws If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he can not prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death. 2 If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the accused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if the river prove that the accused is not guilty, and he escape unhurt, then he who had brought the accusation shall be put to death, while he who leaped into the river shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser. 3 If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death. 4 If he satisfy the elders to impose a fine of grain or money, he shall receive the fine that the action produces. 5 If a judge try a case, reach a decision, and present his judgment in writing; if later error shall appear in his decision, and it be through his own fault, then he shall pay twelve times the fine set by him in the case, and he shall be publicly removed from the judge's bench, and never again shall he sit there to render judgment.
First Empire Sargon of Akkad –From Akkad; a city-state north of Sumer –Long adopted most Sumerian aspects –Created 1 st Empire: brings together several peoples, nations, or previously independent states under control of one ruler.
III.Egypt Along Nile River Natural Desert Barriers Upper and Lower Egypt –Upper is south –Lower is north, near Med. Sea, includes delta (100 miles before Med. Sea, broad, marshy, triangle area, of silt at river mouth.) Hierarchy of classes Women had rights
Egypt (contd) A.Government: Theocracy/Pharaohs –Rule is based on religion; run God-kings B.Religion: Polytheistic C.Accomplishments: –Hieroglyphics: picture writing –Pyramids –Calendar –System of numbers/geometry (engineers and architects) –Medicine D.Decline: Pharaohs lose power
IV.Indus River Valley (India) Indian Subcontinent Surrounded by mountains: Hindu Kush, Karakorum, and Himalayan ranges Between Indus and Ganges Rivers Monsoons: seasonal winds from mid- June to Oct. winds shift and blow east (from SW) bring rains
Indus River Valley (contd) A.Government: Theocracy B.Religion: Hinduism C.Accomplishments: Languageimpossible to decipher City-planning/grids D.Decline: earthquakes and floods alter Indus River; trade became impossible
V. China Natural Barriers isolate China Yellow Sea, Pacific Ocean, East China Sea (East), Mt ranges and deserts dominate 2/3 of its land mass, Taklimakan Desert and Plateau of Tibet (West), Himalayas (SW), Gobi Desert and Mongolian Plateau (North)No trade Huang He River (Yellow River) and Chiang Jiang River (Yangtze) Family more important than individual Women have no rights; considered inferior Hierarchy of classes
China (contd) A.Government: monarchy (Shang Dynasty) Rule by one B.Religion: polytheism family spirits consulted supreme gods C.Accomplishments: Chinese characters (written language) Roads and canals Coined money Cast iron weapons (not seen elsewhere until middle ages) D.Decline: Nomads attack and kill monarch Enter period of warring states
VI. Indo-Europeans Migrate Indo-Europeans: group of nomadic peoples; came from the Steppes; ancestors of many modern languages A.Hittite Empire: lived in Anatolia, excelled in technology of war (esp. chariots) B.Aryans: lived between the Caspian and Aral Seas Vedas: four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for performing rituals Castes: social system of Aryans
VII. Hinduism Develops ( B.C.) a collection of beliefs; seeks to achieve moksha: liberation from desires and suffering –Teach from Vedas (became Upanishads once written down) –Reincarnation: individual soul or spirit is born again until achieves moksha –Karma: good or bad deeds Strengthened caste system –Brahman: world soul seen in 3 main gods
VIII. Buddhism Develops ( B.C.) Founded by Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha: enlightened one) Four Noble Truths: 1. Life is filled with suffering and sorrow 2. The cause of all suffering is peoples selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world 3. The way to end all suffering is to end all desires 4. The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle Way b/t desires and self-denial
Buddhism (contd) Eightfold Path: guide to behavior mastered one step at a time, over many lifetimes Nirvana: release from selfishness and pain Originated in India, spread worldwide TRADE played a crucial role in the spread of Buddhism.
IX. Sea Traders A.Minoans: dominated trade in eastern Mediterranean ( B.C.) Lived on Crete King Minos: owned a Minotaur Volcano destroyed civilization B.Phoenicians: Most powerful sea traders after Minoans Alphabet is their greatest legacy
X. Judaism Develops 1800 B.C. Palestine: trade crossroads for many peoples Canaan: Promised Land of the Hebrews (Jews) A.Abraham 1.Father of the Hebrew people 2.Torah: first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible 3.Monotheism: belief in ONE god 4.Covenant: promise b/t God and Abraham
Judaism develops (contd) B. The Exodus 1. Moses 2. Ten Commandments 3. Israel a. Saul b. David c. Solomon i. Judah: southern division of Israel formed in 922 B.C. ii. Tribute: peace money paid to Assyria
XI. Empires Develop A.New Kingdom of Egypt 1.Hyksos ruled Egypt from B.C. 2.During this time, Hebrews settled Egypt 3.Series of rulers began to restore power (kicked the Hyksos out!) Hebrews stayed and were forced into slavery
New Kingdom (contd) Queen Hatshepsut: declared queen; expanded trade Thutmose III: warlike (might have murdered Hatshepsut); now a mighty empire Ramses II: made treaty with Hittites (who they often fought) –Also built great palaces and temples –Built their tombs in the cliffs
New Kingdom Declines Egypt suffered invasions from Sea Peoples, tribes of Palestine, and Libyan raids. Egyptian Empire broke apart
Empires Develop (contd) B.Assyrian Empire From Northern part of Mesopotamia Through war, created empire Glorified military strength Peak of empire included all of the Fertile Crescent and Egypt Eventually falls to Chaldeans who make Babylon their capital.
Assyrian Empire (contd) Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Empires Develop (contd) C.Persian Empire Based on tolerance and diplomacy (instead of war) Cyrus: King who was a military genius; controlled land from the Indus River to Anatolia Kind towards conquered peoples Allowed NO looting and burning Honored local customs Allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem His successors conquered Egypt Divided land into 20 provinces to govern with satraps (ruled locally) Roads and coins promoted trade that helped hold the empire together. (Royal Road)
Persia (contd) Legacy: –Zoroaster: Persian prophet founded Zoroastrianism Taught belief in one god Earth is a battleground with a great struggle between good and evil Shares concept of Satan and angels with Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Empires Develop (contd) D.China Unites Remember: Zhou Dynasty ruled for 800 yrs. But declined during warring states period 1.Confucius: Chinas most influential scholar Lived in Zhou dynastys decline Taught history, music, and moral character Believed China could restore order by following 5 basic relationships which were based upon the family Children should practice filial piety: respect for parents and ancestors (honoring during life & performing rituals after death)
China Develops (contd) 2.Daoism: philosophy of Laozi; taught that people should be guided by an invisible force known as the Dao. –Pursued scientific studies 3.Qin Dynasty: replaced the Zhou in third century B.C. –Defeated invaders (doubled Chinas size) –Crushed political opposition –Murdered hundreds of scholars who could criticize him and had books burned –Established autocracy: govt with unlimited power –Began production on the Great Wall of China –Decline: peasant rebellion; Han dynasty begins (one of longest in history)