Presentation on theme: "Beginnings of Civilization 4 million B.C. –450 B.C."— Presentation transcript:
1 Beginnings of Civilization 4 million B.C. –450 B.C. Unit 1
2 Human Origins in Africa Earliest humans discovered in Tanzania East AfricaArtifacts: human made objects that help in understanding historyCulture: people’s unique way of life studied by anthropologistsHominid: humans and other creatures that walk uprightB. Stone AgesPaleolithic Age: Old Stone Age, (2.5 mil to 8000 B.C.)Neolithic Age: New Stone Age, (8000 B.C. to 3000 B.C.)
3 Human Origins in Africa (cont’d) 3. Neanderthals: smaller brains, “cave man”Cro-Magnons: fully modern humansC. Humans advanceNomads: highly mobilehunter-gatherers: food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plantsNeolithic Age: agricultural revolutionSlash-and -burn farming: cut grasses and burned them to clear a field.Domestication: taming of animals
4 II. Mesopotamia (Fertile Crescent) --”land between the rivers”--between Tigris River andEuphrates River--unpredictable flooding--no natural boundaries--limited natural resources--women had rights
7 Mesopotamia (cont’d) Government: city-states Religion: polytheism —like independent countriesReligion: polytheism--belief in more than one godAccomplishments:Hammurabi’s CodeEmpire buildersCuneiformZigguratsD. Decline: overtaken by new groups/breaks up
8 Hammurabi’s Code Hammurabi’s Code of Laws If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he can not prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death.2 If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the accused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if the river prove that the accused is not guilty, and he escape unhurt, then he who had brought the accusation shall be put to death, while he who leaped into the river shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser.3 If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death.4 If he satisfy the elders to impose a fine of grain or money, he shall receive the fine that the action produces.5 If a judge try a case, reach a decision, and present his judgment in writing; if later error shall appear in his decision, and it be through his own fault, then he shall pay twelve times the fine set by him in the case, and he shall be publicly removed from the judge's bench, and never again shall he sit there to render judgment.
10 First Empire Sargon of Akkad From Akkad; a city-state north of Sumer Long adopted most Sumerian aspectsCreated 1st Empire: brings together several peoples, nations, or previously independent states under control of one ruler.
11 Egypt Along Nile River Natural Desert Barriers Upper and Lower Egypt Upper is southLower is north, near Med. Sea, includes delta (100 miles before Med. Sea, broad, marshy, triangle area, of silt at river mouth.)Hierarchy of classesWomen had rights
13 Egypt (cont’d) Government: Theocracy/Pharaohs Religion: Polytheistic Rule is based on religion; run God-kingsReligion: PolytheisticAccomplishments:Hieroglyphics: picture writingPyramidsCalendarSystem of numbers/geometry (engineers and architects)MedicineDecline: Pharaohs lose power
15 Indus River Valley (India) Indian SubcontinentSurrounded by mountains: Hindu Kush, Karakorum, and Himalayan rangesBetween Indus and Ganges RiversMonsoons: seasonal winds from mid-June to Oct. winds shift and blow east (from SW) bring rains
17 Indus River Valley (cont’d) Government: TheocracyReligion: HinduismAccomplishments:Language—impossible to decipherCity-planning/gridsDecline: earthquakes and floods alter Indus River; trade became impossible
18 V. China Natural Barriers isolate China Yellow Sea, Pacific Ocean, East China Sea (East), Mt ranges and deserts dominate 2/3 of its land mass, Taklimakan Desert and Plateau of Tibet (West), Himalayas (SW), Gobi Desert and Mongolian Plateau (North)—No tradeHuang He River (Yellow River) and Chiang Jiang River (Yangtze)Family more important than individualWomen have no rights; considered inferiorHierarchy of classes
20 China (cont’d) Government: monarchy (Shang Dynasty) Rule by oneReligion: polytheismfamily spirits consulted supreme godsAccomplishments:Chinese characters (written language)Roads and canalsCoined moneyCast iron weapons (not seen elsewhere until middle ages)Decline: Nomads attack and kill monarchEnter “period of warring states”
22 VI. Indo-Europeans Migrate Indo-Europeans: group of nomadic peoples; came from the Steppes; ancestors of many modern languagesHittite Empire: lived in Anatolia, excelled in technology of war (esp. chariots)Aryans: lived between the Caspian and Aral SeasVedas: four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for performing ritualsCastes: social system of Aryans
24 VII. Hinduism Develops (750-550 B.C.) a collection of beliefs; seeks to achieve moksha: liberation from desires and sufferingTeach from Vedas (became Upanishads once written down)Reincarnation: individual soul or spirit is born again until achieves mokshaKarma: good or bad deedsStrengthened caste systemBrahman: world soul seen in 3 main gods
26 VIII. Buddhism Develops (750-550 B.C.) Founded by Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha: enlightened one)Four Noble Truths:1. Life is filled with suffering and sorrow2. The cause of all suffering is people’s selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world3. The way to end all suffering is to end all desires4. The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle Way b/t desires and self-denial
27 Buddhism (cont’d)Eightfold Path: guide to behavior mastered one step at a time, over many lifetimesNirvana: release from selfishness and painOriginated in India, spread worldwideTRADE played a crucial role in the spread of Buddhism.
29 IX. Sea Traders Minoans: Phoenicians: dominated trade in eastern Mediterranean ( B.C.)Lived on CreteKing Minos: owned a MinotaurVolcano destroyed civilizationPhoenicians:Most powerful sea traders after MinoansAlphabet is their greatest legacy
31 X. Judaism Develops 1800 B.C.Palestine: trade crossroads for many peoplesCanaan: “Promised Land” of the Hebrews (Jews)Abraham“Father” of the Hebrew peopleTorah: first 5 books of the Hebrew BibleMonotheism: belief in ONE godCovenant: promise b/t God and Abraham
32 Judaism develops (cont’d) B. The Exodus1. Moses2. Ten Commandments3. Israela. Saulb. Davidc. Solomoni. Judah: southern division of Israel formed in 922 B.C.ii. Tribute: peace money paid to Assyria
33 XI. Empires Develop New Kingdom of Egypt Hyksos ruled Egypt from B.C.During this time, Hebrews settled EgyptSeries of rulers began to restore power (kicked the Hyksos out!)Hebrews stayed and were forced into slavery
34 New Kingdom (cont’d) Queen Hatshepsut: declared queen; expanded trade Thutmose III: warlike (might have murdered Hatshepsut); now a mighty empireRamses II: made treaty with Hittites (who they often fought)Also built great palaces and templesBuilt their tombs in the cliffs
36 New Kingdom DeclinesEgypt suffered invasions from “Sea Peoples”, tribes of Palestine, and Libyan raids.Egyptian Empire broke apart
37 Empires Develop (cont’d) Assyrian EmpireFrom Northern part of MesopotamiaThrough war, created empireGlorified military strengthPeak of empire included all of the Fertile Crescent and EgyptEventually falls to Chaldeans who make Babylon their capital.
38 Assyrian Empire (cont’d) Hanging Gardens of Babylon
40 Empires Develop (cont’d) Persian EmpireBased on tolerance and diplomacy (instead of war)Cyrus: King who was a military genius; controlled land from the Indus River to AnatoliaKind towards conquered peoplesAllowed NO looting and burningHonored local customsAllowed Jews to return to JerusalemHis successors conquered EgyptDivided land into 20 provinces to govern with satraps (ruled locally)Roads and coins promoted trade that helped hold the empire together. (Royal Road)
41 Persia (cont’d) Legacy: Zoroaster: Persian prophet founded ZoroastrianismTaught belief in one godEarth is a battleground with a great struggle between good and evilShares concept of Satan and angels with Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
42 Empires Develop (cont’d) China UnitesRemember: Zhou Dynasty ruled for 800 yrs. But declined during “warring states period”Confucius: China’s most influential scholarLived in Zhou dynasty’s declineTaught history, music, and moral characterBelieved China could restore orderby following 5 basic relationshipswhich were based upon the familyChildren should practice filial piety:respect for parents and ancestors(honoring during life & performingrituals after death)
43 China Develops (cont’d) Daoism: philosophy of Laozi; taught that people should be guided by an invisible force known as the Dao.Pursued scientific studiesQin Dynasty: replaced the Zhou in third century B.C.Defeated invaders (doubled China’s size)Crushed political oppositionMurdered hundreds of scholars who could criticize him and had books burnedEstablished autocracy: gov’t with unlimited powerBegan production on the Great Wall of ChinaDecline: peasant rebellion; Han dynasty begins (one of longest in history)