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Landscape Design Competencies 17.00-21.00. Landscaping Careers.

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Presentation on theme: "Landscape Design Competencies 17.00-21.00. Landscaping Careers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Landscape Design Competencies

2 Landscaping Careers

3 What is Landscaping? Landscaping is a profession that includes designing, installing, and maintaining the outdoor human environment. Landscaping is a profession that includes designing, installing, and maintaining the outdoor human environment. There are 3 branches of the landscaping industry There are 3 branches of the landscaping industry Landscape Architecture Landscape Architecture Landscape Contractors Landscape Contractors Landscape Maintenance Landscape Maintenance

4 Landscape Architects Licensed professions Licensed professions Conceptualize and plan the outdoor environment or landscape for residential and commercial clients. Conceptualize and plan the outdoor environment or landscape for residential and commercial clients. Landscape designers usually do actual drawings for residential landscapes. Landscape designers usually do actual drawings for residential landscapes.

5 Landscape Contractors Carry out the installation or actual construction of the landscape plan Carry out the installation or actual construction of the landscape plan Often use subcontractors to do special work such as pools, electrical work, stonework, etc. Often use subcontractors to do special work such as pools, electrical work, stonework, etc.

6 Landscape Maintenance Extended care of existing landscapes Extended care of existing landscapes The care and upkeep of the landscape after installation The care and upkeep of the landscape after installation

7 Design-build Firms Landscape businesses that handle everything from the initial contact with the client through design and construction as well as long-term care and maintenance. Landscape businesses that handle everything from the initial contact with the client through design and construction as well as long-term care and maintenance.

8 Landscape Nursery Worker Professional who sells and installs landscape plants and related materials. Professional who sells and installs landscape plants and related materials.

9 Types of Landscape Plans

10 There are three types of plans used in landscaping There are three types of plans used in landscaping Sequential Sequential Computer Assisted Computer Assisted Graphics Graphics

11 Landscape Plans

12 Sequential Plans Each part of the plan is increasingly more specific and detailed. Each part of the plan is increasingly more specific and detailed. Includes Includes Functional diagrams Functional diagrams Preliminary designs Preliminary designs Final Plans Final Plans

13 Sequential Plans-Functional Diagrams Begin the arrangement of the clients program on the site. Begin the arrangement of the clients program on the site. Called bubble diagrams because they use loosely drawn freeform shapes to represent areas or spaces Called bubble diagrams because they use loosely drawn freeform shapes to represent areas or spaces Help the designer make decisions concerning layout and sizes and the use of each area. Help the designer make decisions concerning layout and sizes and the use of each area.

14 Sequential Plans-Preliminary Designs Break the bubbles to show first draft vision of how each landscape area will be shaped. Break the bubbles to show first draft vision of how each landscape area will be shaped. Landscape is given its form, type of materials to be used, and application of landscape design principles. Landscape is given its form, type of materials to be used, and application of landscape design principles. Simple without real details, but the horizontal and vertical relationships between objects and areas are now included. Simple without real details, but the horizontal and vertical relationships between objects and areas are now included. A number of these may be shown before final plans are made. A number of these may be shown before final plans are made.

15 Sequential Plans-Final Plans Use suggestions and reactions of the client to make a master drawing that is graphically detailed and specific in its intent for the landscape. Use suggestions and reactions of the client to make a master drawing that is graphically detailed and specific in its intent for the landscape. Include identified plants, paving patterns, and other specific information. Include identified plants, paving patterns, and other specific information. Can also include construction drawings for the landscape contractor or subcontractor Can also include construction drawings for the landscape contractor or subcontractor Graphics are designed to impress Graphics are designed to impress

16 Computer Assisted Also called drawing board Also called drawing board CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems are accelerated drafting systems, designed to draw landscape plans using a personal computer. CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems are accelerated drafting systems, designed to draw landscape plans using a personal computer.

17 Graphics Consists of letters and numbers Consists of letters and numbers Free-hand lettering Free-hand lettering Mechanical lettering Mechanical lettering Computer lettering Computer lettering

18 Landscape Principles and Procedures

19 Principles of Design Balance Balance Focalization of Interest Focalization of Interest Simplicity Simplicity Rhythm and Line Rhythm and Line Proportion Proportion Unity Unity

20 Balance Materials are distributed evenly on opposite sides of a central axis Materials are distributed evenly on opposite sides of a central axis Three types of balance: Three types of balance: Symmetric Symmetric Asymmetric Asymmetric Proximal/distal Proximal/distal Macro-range-the viewer sees the landscape from the most distant vantage point Macro-range-the viewer sees the landscape from the most distant vantage point Closer range-the views from other locations not as distant Closer range-the views from other locations not as distant

21 Symmetric Balance One side is a reflective mirror image of the opposite side One side is a reflective mirror image of the opposite side Most formal type of balance Most formal type of balance

22 Asymmetric Balance Each side has as much interest as the other Each side has as much interest as the other Not a duplicate of the other side Not a duplicate of the other side

23 Proximal/Distal Balance Balances right and left as well as near and far Balances right and left as well as near and far

24 Focalization of Interest Selects and positions visually strong items in the landscape composition to create focal points Selects and positions visually strong items in the landscape composition to create focal points Draws the eye of the viewer to one major feature in each use area Draws the eye of the viewer to one major feature in each use area Example: corner planting Example: corner planting

25 Simplicity Seeks to make viewers comfortable within the landscape Seeks to make viewers comfortable within the landscape Excludes any unnecessary changes in shape, color, direction, etc. Excludes any unnecessary changes in shape, color, direction, etc.

26 Rhythm and Line Repeating something at a standard interval or pattern creates rhythm Repeating something at a standard interval or pattern creates rhythm Lines establish the shape and form of the landscape Lines establish the shape and form of the landscape Replicating strong existing lines such as the lines of a house or a pool Replicating strong existing lines such as the lines of a house or a pool Functions of line plantings include foundation plantings, block a view, frame a view, and provide privacy. Functions of line plantings include foundation plantings, block a view, frame a view, and provide privacy.

27 Proportion The size relationships between all the features of the landscape including vertical, horizontal, and spatial relationships The size relationships between all the features of the landscape including vertical, horizontal, and spatial relationships

28 Proportion Will maintain proper proportional relationships in a landscape between Will maintain proper proportional relationships in a landscape between Buildings and people Buildings and people Buildings and plants Buildings and plants Plants and people Plants and people Plants and plants Plants and plants Masses and soils Masses and soils

29 Unity All the separate parts contribute to the creation of the total design All the separate parts contribute to the creation of the total design Ties together individual parts of each area by: Ties together individual parts of each area by: Repeating prominent colors Repeating prominent colors Repeating construction materials Repeating construction materials Continuing interior design themes to outdoor rooms Continuing interior design themes to outdoor rooms Repeat plant species Repeat plant species Raise patios, decks, and porches to door level Raise patios, decks, and porches to door level

30 Landscape Processes Process is a sequence of steps to reach a goal Process is a sequence of steps to reach a goal There are three parts to the landscape process There are three parts to the landscape process Project development Project development Project maintenance Project maintenance Design Design

31 Project Development Process Includes determining need or objective Includes determining need or objective Design process Design process Accepting the design Accepting the design Contracting and subcontracting Contracting and subcontracting Landscaping Landscaping Acceptance Acceptance Billing and payment Billing and payment

32 Project Maintenance Process Determining need or desire Determining need or desire Selecting landscape maintenance company which assesses the needs and presents a proposal Selecting landscape maintenance company which assesses the needs and presents a proposal If the proposal is accepted, the company schedules and does the work If the proposal is accepted, the company schedules and does the work Customer is billed Customer is billed

33 Design Process Site analysis and program analysis Site analysis and program analysis

34 Interior Landscaping

35 Called interior plantscaping or interiorscaping Called interior plantscaping or interiorscaping

36 Purposes of Interior Landscaping Add color Add color Add textures Add textures Add softness Add softness Add life Add life Increase employee productivity Increase employee productivity Decrease employee absenteeism Decrease employee absenteeism Add oxygen Add oxygen Provide herbs for cooking, medicine, or fragrance Provide herbs for cooking, medicine, or fragrance Add beauty and comfort by combining all of the previously mentioned purposes Add beauty and comfort by combining all of the previously mentioned purposes

37 Benefits of Interior Landscaping Adds color, texture, softness, life and oxygen to interior plantscape Adds color, texture, softness, life and oxygen to interior plantscape Increases employee productivity Increases employee productivity Decreases employee absences from work Decreases employee absences from work Provides herbs for cooking, fragrance, or medicine Provides herbs for cooking, fragrance, or medicine

38 Disadvantages of Interior Landscaping Reduced light Reduced light Reduced root system Reduced root system Dependant upon people for watering Dependant upon people for watering Build-up of soluble salts from fertilizer Build-up of soluble salts from fertilizer Plugging stomata from dust on leaves Plugging stomata from dust on leaves Damage from heating, air conditioning, and cleaning chemicals Damage from heating, air conditioning, and cleaning chemicals

39 Growing medium Growing medium Only plants that will grow inside can be used Only plants that will grow inside can be used Picking or breaking leaves by people using the interior building area Picking or breaking leaves by people using the interior building area Disadvantages of Interior Landscaping

40 Benefits of Exterior Landscaping Adds color, texture, and life Adds color, texture, and life Adds aesthetic value (beauty) Adds aesthetic value (beauty) Adds economic value to property Adds economic value to property Adds comfort (shade) Adds comfort (shade) Adds privacyborders, fences, etc. Adds privacyborders, fences, etc. Helps prevent erosion Helps prevent erosion Can use larger exterior plants Can use larger exterior plants Rain natural soil provide most of required water Rain natural soil provide most of required water Gets natural light Gets natural light

41 Disadvantages of Exterior Landscaping May get too much rain and drown May get too much rain and drown Natural soils may have diseases, insects, improper pH, etc. Natural soils may have diseases, insects, improper pH, etc. Natural soils may be shallow or rocky Natural soils may be shallow or rocky Natural outdoor soils may be subject to erosion Natural outdoor soils may be subject to erosion Weed and insect control is more difficult Weed and insect control is more difficult Large areas of landscaping costs more Large areas of landscaping costs more More labor is required to establish outdoor landscape More labor is required to establish outdoor landscape

42 Methods of Planting Ornamental Plants

43 Planting Ornamental Plants Tools vary depending upon type and size of plants from bulb planter, trowel, spade, shovel to power augers and front end loaders. Tools vary depending upon type and size of plants from bulb planter, trowel, spade, shovel to power augers and front end loaders.

44 Planting Ornamental Plants Hole should be larger than plant roots and soil prepared so that new roots will grow in it. Hole should be larger than plant roots and soil prepared so that new roots will grow in it. Methods of installation are determined by root form whether bare-rooted, balled-and- burlapped or containerized Methods of installation are determined by root form whether bare-rooted, balled-and- burlapped or containerized

45 Balled and Burlapped Plants Balled and burlapped plants have a round soil ball of roots wrapped in burlap fabric. Balled and burlapped plants have a round soil ball of roots wrapped in burlap fabric. Planted in flat-bottomed, straight-sided hole that is deeper and wider than the ball. Planted in flat-bottomed, straight-sided hole that is deeper and wider than the ball. Backfill soil should fill the hole enough to raise the plant to the level at which it grew in the nursery. Backfill soil should fill the hole enough to raise the plant to the level at which it grew in the nursery. Loose burlap around top of plant. Loose burlap around top of plant. Mounded ring of soil around plant to catch water. Mounded ring of soil around plant to catch water.

46 Balled and Burlapped Plants

47 Containerized Plants Use the same type hold, mounded ring, etc. as balled and burlapped. Use the same type hold, mounded ring, etc. as balled and burlapped. In addition, the plant must be removed from the container In addition, the plant must be removed from the container Roots should be unwound or cut at two inch intervals if pot-bound Roots should be unwound or cut at two inch intervals if pot-bound

48 Bare-rooted Plants Have to have a mound or dome in the bottom of the hole to spread roots and direct roots to grow downward. Have to have a mound or dome in the bottom of the hole to spread roots and direct roots to grow downward.

49 Planting Ornamental Plants Tall plants, even small trees, need to be staked to prevent blowing over. Tall plants, even small trees, need to be staked to prevent blowing over. Mulching should be done to help retain water, prevent weeds, improve appearance, and minimize temperature fluctuations. Mulching should be done to help retain water, prevent weeds, improve appearance, and minimize temperature fluctuations. Water adequately and frequently enough for healthy plants. Water adequately and frequently enough for healthy plants.

50 Handling Ornamental Plants Balled and burlapped plants should be handled by the root ball Balled and burlapped plants should be handled by the root ball Container grown plants should be handled by the container until removed and then by the root mass Container grown plants should be handled by the container until removed and then by the root mass


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