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Landscape Design Competencies 17.00-21.00.

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Presentation on theme: "Landscape Design Competencies 17.00-21.00."— Presentation transcript:

1 Landscape Design Competencies

2 Landscaping Careers

3 What is Landscaping? Landscaping is a profession that includes designing, installing, and maintaining the outdoor human environment. There are 3 branches of the landscaping industry Landscape Architecture Landscape Contractors Landscape Maintenance

4 Landscape Architects Licensed professions
Conceptualize and plan the outdoor environment or landscape for residential and commercial clients. Landscape designers usually do actual drawings for residential landscapes.

5 Landscape Contractors
Carry out the installation or actual construction of the landscape plan Often use subcontractors to do special work such as pools, electrical work, stonework, etc.

6 Landscape Maintenance
Extended care of existing landscapes The care and upkeep of the landscape after installation

7 Design-build Firms Landscape businesses that handle everything from the initial contact with the client through design and construction as well as long-term care and maintenance.

8 Landscape Nursery Worker
Professional who sells and installs landscape plants and related materials.

9 Types of Landscape Plans

10 Types of Landscape Plans
There are three types of plans used in landscaping Sequential Computer Assisted Graphics

11 Landscape Plans

12 Sequential Plans Each part of the plan is increasingly more specific and detailed. Includes Functional diagrams Preliminary designs Final Plans

13 Sequential Plans-Functional Diagrams
Begin the arrangement of the client’s program on the site. Called “bubble diagrams” because they use loosely drawn freeform shapes to represent areas or spaces Help the designer make decisions concerning layout and sizes and the use of each area.

14 Sequential Plans-Preliminary Designs
Break the “bubbles” to show first draft vision of how each landscape area will be shaped. Landscape is given its form, type of materials to be used, and application of landscape design principles. Simple without real details, but the horizontal and vertical relationships between objects and areas are now included. A number of these may be shown before final plans are made.

15 Sequential Plans-Final Plans
Use suggestions and reactions of the client to make a master drawing that is graphically detailed and specific in its intent for the landscape. Include identified plants, paving patterns, and other specific information. Can also include construction drawings for the landscape contractor or subcontractor Graphics are designed to impress

16 Computer Assisted Also called drawing board
CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems are accelerated drafting systems, designed to draw landscape plans using a personal computer.

17 Graphics B A C Consists of letters and numbers Free-hand lettering
Mechanical lettering Computer lettering B A C

18 Landscape Principles and Procedures

19 Principles of Design Balance Focalization of Interest Simplicity
Rhythm and Line Proportion Unity

20 Balance Materials are distributed evenly on opposite sides of a central axis Three types of balance: Symmetric Asymmetric Proximal/distal Macro-range-the viewer sees the landscape from the most distant vantage point Closer range-the views from other locations not as distant

21 Symmetric Balance One side is a reflective mirror image of the opposite side Most formal type of balance

22 Asymmetric Balance Each side has as much interest as the other
Not a duplicate of the other side

23 Proximal/Distal Balance
Balances right and left as well as near and far

24 Focalization of Interest
Selects and positions visually strong items in the landscape composition to create focal points Draws the eye of the viewer to one major feature in each use area Example: corner planting

25 Simplicity Seeks to make viewers comfortable within the landscape
Excludes any unnecessary changes in shape, color, direction, etc.

26 Rhythm and Line Repeating something at a standard interval or pattern creates rhythm Lines establish the shape and form of the landscape Replicating strong existing lines such as the lines of a house or a pool Functions of line plantings include foundation plantings, block a view, frame a view, and provide privacy.

27 Proportion The size relationships between all the features of the landscape including vertical, horizontal, and spatial relationships

28 Proportion Will maintain proper proportional relationships in a landscape between Buildings and people Buildings and plants Plants and people Plants and plants Masses and soils

29 Unity All the separate parts contribute to the creation of the total design Ties together individual parts of each area by: Repeating prominent colors Repeating construction materials Continuing interior design themes to outdoor rooms Repeat plant species Raise patios, decks, and porches to door level

30 Landscape Processes Process is a sequence of steps to reach a goal
There are three parts to the landscape process Project development Project maintenance Design

31 Project Development Process
Includes determining need or objective Design process Accepting the design Contracting and subcontracting Landscaping Acceptance Billing and payment

32 Project Maintenance Process
Determining need or desire Selecting landscape maintenance company which assesses the needs and presents a proposal If the proposal is accepted, the company schedules and does the work Customer is billed

33 Design Process Site analysis and program analysis

34 Interior Landscaping

35 Interior Landscaping Called interior plantscaping or interiorscaping

36 Purposes of Interior Landscaping
Add color Add textures Add softness Add life Increase employee productivity Decrease employee absenteeism Add oxygen Provide herbs for cooking, medicine, or fragrance Add beauty and comfort by combining all of the previously mentioned purposes

37 Benefits of Interior Landscaping
Adds color, texture, softness, life and oxygen to interior plantscape Increases employee productivity Decreases employee absences from work Provides herbs for cooking, fragrance, or medicine

38 Disadvantages of Interior Landscaping
Reduced light Reduced root system Dependant upon people for watering Build-up of soluble salts from fertilizer Plugging stomata from dust on leaves Damage from heating, air conditioning, and cleaning chemicals

39 Disadvantages of Interior Landscaping
Growing medium Only plants that will grow inside can be used Picking or breaking leaves by people using the interior building area

40 Benefits of Exterior Landscaping
Adds color, texture, and life Adds aesthetic value (beauty) Adds economic value to property Adds comfort (shade) Adds privacy—borders, fences, etc. Helps prevent erosion Can use larger exterior plants Rain natural soil provide most of required water Gets natural light

41 Disadvantages of Exterior Landscaping
May get too much rain and drown Natural soils may have diseases, insects, improper pH, etc. Natural soils may be shallow or rocky Natural outdoor soils may be subject to erosion Weed and insect control is more difficult Large areas of landscaping costs more More labor is required to establish outdoor landscape

42 Methods of Planting Ornamental Plants

43 Planting Ornamental Plants
Tools vary depending upon type and size of plants from bulb planter, trowel, spade, shovel to power augers and front end loaders.

44 Planting Ornamental Plants
Hole should be larger than plant roots and soil prepared so that new roots will grow in it. Methods of installation are determined by root form whether bare-rooted, balled-and-burlapped or containerized

45 Balled and Burlapped Plants
Balled and burlapped plants have a round soil ball of roots wrapped in burlap fabric. Planted in flat-bottomed, straight-sided hole that is deeper and wider than the ball. Backfill soil should fill the hole enough to raise the plant to the level at which it grew in the nursery. Loose burlap around top of plant. Mounded ring of soil around plant to catch water.

46 Balled and Burlapped Plants

47 Containerized Plants Use the same type hold, mounded ring, etc. as balled and burlapped. In addition, the plant must be removed from the container Roots should be unwound or cut at two inch intervals if pot-bound

48 Bare-rooted Plants Have to have a mound or dome in the bottom of the hole to spread roots and direct roots to grow downward.

49 Planting Ornamental Plants
Tall plants, even small trees, need to be staked to prevent blowing over. Mulching should be done to help retain water, prevent weeds, improve appearance, and minimize temperature fluctuations. Water adequately and frequently enough for healthy plants.

50 Handling Ornamental Plants
Balled and burlapped plants should be handled by the root ball Container grown plants should be handled by the container until removed and then by the root mass

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