3What is Landscaping?Landscaping is a profession that includes designing, installing, and maintaining the outdoor human environment.There are 3 branches of the landscaping industryLandscape ArchitectureLandscape ContractorsLandscape Maintenance
4Landscape Architects Licensed professions Conceptualize and plan the outdoor environment or landscape for residential and commercial clients.Landscape designers usually do actual drawings for residential landscapes.
5Landscape Contractors Carry out the installation or actual construction of the landscape planOften use subcontractors to do special work such as pools, electrical work, stonework, etc.
6Landscape Maintenance Extended care of existing landscapesThe care and upkeep of the landscape after installation
7Design-build FirmsLandscape businesses that handle everything from the initial contact with the client through design and construction as well as long-term care and maintenance.
8Landscape Nursery Worker Professional who sells and installs landscape plants and related materials.
12Sequential PlansEach part of the plan is increasingly more specific and detailed.IncludesFunctional diagramsPreliminary designsFinal Plans
13Sequential Plans-Functional Diagrams Begin the arrangement of the client’s program on the site.Called “bubble diagrams” because they use loosely drawn freeform shapes to represent areas or spacesHelp the designer make decisions concerning layout and sizes and the use of each area.
14Sequential Plans-Preliminary Designs Break the “bubbles” to show first draft vision of how each landscape area will be shaped.Landscape is given its form, type of materials to be used, and application of landscape design principles.Simple without real details, but the horizontal and vertical relationships between objects and areas are now included.A number of these may be shown before final plans are made.
15Sequential Plans-Final Plans Use suggestions and reactions of the client to make a master drawing that is graphically detailed and specific in its intent for the landscape.Include identified plants, paving patterns, and other specific information.Can also include construction drawings for the landscape contractor or subcontractorGraphics are designed to impress
16Computer Assisted Also called drawing board CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems are accelerated drafting systems, designed to draw landscape plans using a personal computer.
17Graphics B A C Consists of letters and numbers Free-hand lettering Mechanical letteringComputer letteringBAC
19Principles of Design Balance Focalization of Interest Simplicity Rhythm and LineProportionUnity
20BalanceMaterials are distributed evenly on opposite sides of a central axisThree types of balance:SymmetricAsymmetricProximal/distalMacro-range-the viewer sees the landscape from the most distant vantage pointCloser range-the views from other locations not as distant
21Symmetric BalanceOne side is a reflective mirror image of the opposite sideMost formal type of balance
22Asymmetric Balance Each side has as much interest as the other Not a duplicate of the other side
23Proximal/Distal Balance Balances right and left as well as near and far
24Focalization of Interest Selects and positions visually strong items in the landscape composition to create focal pointsDraws the eye of the viewer to one major feature in each use areaExample: corner planting
25Simplicity Seeks to make viewers comfortable within the landscape Excludes any unnecessary changes in shape, color, direction, etc.
26Rhythm and LineRepeating something at a standard interval or pattern creates rhythmLines establish the shape and form of the landscapeReplicating strong existing lines such as the lines of a house or a poolFunctions of line plantings include foundation plantings, block a view, frame a view, and provide privacy.
27ProportionThe size relationships between all the features of the landscape including vertical, horizontal, and spatial relationships
28ProportionWill maintain proper proportional relationships in a landscape betweenBuildings and peopleBuildings and plantsPlants and peoplePlants and plantsMasses and soils
29UnityAll the separate parts contribute to the creation of the total designTies together individual parts of each area by:Repeating prominent colorsRepeating construction materialsContinuing interior design themes to outdoor roomsRepeat plant speciesRaise patios, decks, and porches to door level
30Landscape Processes Process is a sequence of steps to reach a goal There are three parts to the landscape processProject developmentProject maintenanceDesign
31Project Development Process Includes determining need or objectiveDesign processAccepting the designContracting and subcontractingLandscapingAcceptanceBilling and payment
32Project Maintenance Process Determining need or desireSelecting landscape maintenance company which assesses the needs and presents a proposalIf the proposal is accepted, the company schedules and does the workCustomer is billed
33Design ProcessSite analysis and program analysis
35Interior LandscapingCalled interior plantscaping or interiorscaping
36Purposes of Interior Landscaping Add colorAdd texturesAdd softnessAdd lifeIncrease employee productivityDecrease employee absenteeismAdd oxygenProvide herbs for cooking, medicine, or fragranceAdd beauty and comfort by combining all of the previously mentioned purposes
37Benefits of Interior Landscaping Adds color, texture, softness, life and oxygen to interior plantscapeIncreases employee productivityDecreases employee absences from workProvides herbs for cooking, fragrance, or medicine
38Disadvantages of Interior Landscaping Reduced lightReduced root systemDependant upon people for wateringBuild-up of soluble salts from fertilizerPlugging stomata from dust on leavesDamage from heating, air conditioning, and cleaning chemicals
39Disadvantages of Interior Landscaping Growing mediumOnly plants that will grow inside can be usedPicking or breaking leaves by people using the interior building area
40Benefits of Exterior Landscaping Adds color, texture, and lifeAdds aesthetic value (beauty)Adds economic value to propertyAdds comfort (shade)Adds privacy—borders, fences, etc.Helps prevent erosionCan use larger exterior plantsRain natural soil provide most of required waterGets natural light
41Disadvantages of Exterior Landscaping May get too much rain and drownNatural soils may have diseases, insects, improper pH, etc.Natural soils may be shallow or rockyNatural outdoor soils may be subject to erosionWeed and insect control is more difficultLarge areas of landscaping costs moreMore labor is required to establish outdoor landscape
43Planting Ornamental Plants Tools vary depending upon type and size of plants from bulb planter, trowel, spade, shovel to power augers and front end loaders.
44Planting Ornamental Plants Hole should be larger than plant roots and soil prepared so that new roots will grow in it.Methods of installation are determined by root form whether bare-rooted, balled-and-burlapped or containerized
45Balled and Burlapped Plants Balled and burlapped plants have a round soil ball of roots wrapped in burlap fabric.Planted in flat-bottomed, straight-sided hole that is deeper and wider than the ball.Backfill soil should fill the hole enough to raise the plant to the level at which it grew in the nursery.Loose burlap around top of plant.Mounded ring of soil around plant to catch water.
47Containerized PlantsUse the same type hold, mounded ring, etc. as balled and burlapped.In addition, the plant must be removed from the containerRoots should be unwound or cut at two inch intervals if pot-bound
48Bare-rooted PlantsHave to have a mound or dome in the bottom of the hole to spread roots and direct roots to grow downward.
49Planting Ornamental Plants Tall plants, even small trees, need to be staked to prevent blowing over.Mulching should be done to help retain water, prevent weeds, improve appearance, and minimize temperature fluctuations.Water adequately and frequently enough for healthy plants.
50Handling Ornamental Plants Balled and burlapped plants should be handled by the root ballContainer grown plants should be handled by the container until removed and then by the root mass