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Russia Welcome to True Democracy! *Be sure not to offend Putin in this presentation.*

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Presentation on theme: "Russia Welcome to True Democracy! *Be sure not to offend Putin in this presentation.*"— Presentation transcript:

1 Russia Welcome to True Democracy! *Be sure not to offend Putin in this presentation.*

2 Sovereignty, Authority, and Power Historically based in strong autocratic rule under tsars Historically based in strong autocratic rule under tsars 20 th Century – based in Marxist- Leninist ideology of democratic centralism, rule of the few to benefit the many 20 th Century – based in Marxist- Leninist ideology of democratic centralism, rule of the few to benefit the many Stalinism pushed it to totalitarianism, complete invasive rule by dictators Stalinism pushed it to totalitarianism, complete invasive rule by dictators

3 Sovereignty, Authority, and Power Nikita Khrushchev and Mikhail Gorbachev loosened Communist rule, leading to the collapse of the U.S.S.R. Nikita Khrushchev and Mikhail Gorbachev loosened Communist rule, leading to the collapse of the U.S.S.R. Constitution of 1993 – reformed Russia as a presidential republic Constitution of 1993 – reformed Russia as a presidential republic Approved by referendum of Russian voters to build legitimacyApproved by referendum of Russian voters to build legitimacy Attempted coups and conflict between president and Duma suggested weaknessAttempted coups and conflict between president and Duma suggested weakness Elections in 2000 and 2004 went smoothly, suggesting successElections in 2000 and 2004 went smoothly, suggesting success

4 Historical Influences on Political Traditions Common Themes of Russian History: Common Themes of Russian History: Absolute, Centralized Rule – Geography was subject to easy invasion and conquest, leading to unchallenged, powerful leadershipAbsolute, Centralized Rule – Geography was subject to easy invasion and conquest, leading to unchallenged, powerful leadership Extensive Cultural Heterogeneity – numerous invasions plus expansion of borders created a diverse populationExtensive Cultural Heterogeneity – numerous invasions plus expansion of borders created a diverse population

5 Historical Influences on Political Traditions Common Themes of Russian History: Common Themes of Russian History: Slavophile vs. Westernizer – pride in slavic customs and resistance to outside influence conflicts with modernizing influences from the westSlavophile vs. Westernizer – pride in slavic customs and resistance to outside influence conflicts with modernizing influences from the west Tsar Peter the Great in late 17 th to early 18 th century modeled Russian Empire on West Tsar Peter the Great in late 17 th to early 18 th century modeled Russian Empire on West Revolutions of the 20 th CenturyRevolutions of the 20 th Century Seize of power by Bolsheviks in 1917, keeping authoritarian style of rule, but changed social class system Seize of power by Bolsheviks in 1917, keeping authoritarian style of rule, but changed social class system Dissolution of U.S.S.R. in 1991 Dissolution of U.S.S.R. in 1991

6 Political Culture Influences Influences GeographyGeography Largest territory in the world Largest territory in the world Includes many nationalities and ethnicities, borders many others Includes many nationalities and ethnicities, borders many others One of the coldest in the world One of the coldest in the world Few warm water ports, often motivated to conquer countries that blocked access to the sea Few warm water ports, often motivated to conquer countries that blocked access to the sea Many natural resources were locked in Siberia, but are now accessible due to technological improvement Many natural resources were locked in Siberia, but are now accessible due to technological improvement

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8 Political Culture Influences Influences Eastern OrthodoxyEastern Orthodoxy Russia developed economic ties with Constantinople, not the West, in early centuries Russia developed economic ties with Constantinople, not the West, in early centuries Missed out on Enlightenment and Reformation ideals Missed out on Enlightenment and Reformation ideals Instead, valued statism, a strong state to protect them from geographic vulnerabilities Instead, valued statism, a strong state to protect them from geographic vulnerabilities

9 Political Culture Influences Influences Equality of ResultEquality of Result Russians tend to resent the wealthy Russians tend to resent the wealthy Skepticism About PowerSkepticism About Power Despite statism, Russians have little faith in public officials competence Despite statism, Russians have little faith in public officials competence Exception: Putin, 70-80% approval ratingException: Putin, 70-80% approval rating Importance of NationalityImportance of Nationality Lots of stereotypes about Russians, Baltic people, Muslim-Turks, Jews Lots of stereotypes about Russians, Baltic people, Muslim-Turks, Jews

10 Political and Economic Change Attempts at liberalization have historically resulted in disaster Attempts at liberalization have historically resulted in disaster Alexander II freed Russian serfs, created local assemblies, gets assassinated by revolutionaries (1881)Alexander II freed Russian serfs, created local assemblies, gets assassinated by revolutionaries (1881) 19 th century tsars who used capitalist means to industrialize failed19 th century tsars who used capitalist means to industrialize failed Gorbechevs glasnost ended in widespread criticism of government, a military coup, and the collapse of the U.S.S.R.Gorbechevs glasnost ended in widespread criticism of government, a military coup, and the collapse of the U.S.S.R.

11 Political and Economic Change Three major periods Three major periods Tsarist Rule (13 th Century – 1917)Tsarist Rule (13 th Century – 1917) Mongol rulers established cooperative tsars over Russia, later lost influence Mongol rulers established cooperative tsars over Russia, later lost influence Tsar Peter the Great (late 17 th – early 18 th century) introduced Western technology and culture Tsar Peter the Great (late 17 th – early 18 th century) introduced Western technology and culture Catherine the Great – ruled as an enlightened despot, authoritarian but for public good Catherine the Great – ruled as an enlightened despot, authoritarian but for public good 19 th Century – Decembrist Revolt (1825), loss in the Crimean War delegitimized tsars, who resorted to secret police and executions to stay in power 19 th Century – Decembrist Revolt (1825), loss in the Crimean War delegitimized tsars, who resorted to secret police and executions to stay in power Assassination of Alexander II led his son to undo all democratic reforms Assassination of Alexander II led his son to undo all democratic reforms

12 Political and Economic Change Three major periods Three major periods Revolution of 1917, Lenin, and StalinRevolution of 1917, Lenin, and Stalin Loss in Russo-Japanese War (1905) further weakened the state Loss in Russo-Japanese War (1905) further weakened the state State collapsed in Feb due to World War I State collapsed in Feb due to World War I Soldiers often fought with no guns or shoesSoldiers often fought with no guns or shoes Massive defections ended any sense of legitimacyMassive defections ended any sense of legitimacy Marxist exile Lenin returned to take power Marxist exile Lenin returned to take power Lenins 1905 pamphlet What is to be DoneLenins 1905 pamphlet What is to be Done Followers became known as BolsheviksFollowers became known as Bolsheviks Formally seize control Oct. 1917Formally seize control Oct. 1917

13 Political and Economic Change Three major periods Three major periods Revolution of 1917, Lenin, and StalinRevolution of 1917, Lenin, and Stalin 1918 Civil War 1918 Civil War Red Army (Bolsheviks) victory over White Army (funded by Allied Powers)Red Army (Bolsheviks) victory over White Army (funded by Allied Powers) Results in New Economic Policy which allows private property ownership in agrarian U.S.S.R.Results in New Economic Policy which allows private property ownership in agrarian U.S.S.R. Death of Lenin in 1924, ensuing power struggle Death of Lenin in 1924, ensuing power struggle Stalin placed Communists (CPSU) at the center of control Stalin placed Communists (CPSU) at the center of control

14 Political and Economic Change Three major periods Three major periods Revolution of 1917, Lenin, and StalinRevolution of 1917, Lenin, and Stalin Stalinism Stalinism Elite recruitment through nomenklatura, recommendation of high level party members to promote low level party membersElite recruitment through nomenklatura, recommendation of high level party members to promote low level party members Collectivization – no more private land ownership, state run collective farmsCollectivization – no more private land ownership, state run collective farms Peasants who resisted (kulaks) were sent to cities or labor camps, or executed Peasants who resisted (kulaks) were sent to cities or labor camps, or executed Industrialization – Five Year Plans set ambitious production goals in oil, steel, electricityIndustrialization – Five Year Plans set ambitious production goals in oil, steel, electricity Plans carried out by Gosplan, the Central State Planning Commission Plans carried out by Gosplan, the Central State Planning Commission

15 Communist Party of the Soviet Union (7% of population) Central Committee (300ish members) Politburo (12 members General Secretary

16 Political and Economic Change Three major periods Three major periods Revolution of 1917, Lenin, and StalinRevolution of 1917, Lenin, and Stalin Stalinism Stalinism Purges – execution of millions of citizens and up to a million party members who were disloyalPurges – execution of millions of citizens and up to a million party members who were disloyal ReformReform Nikita Khrushchev wins power struggle in 1953 after death of Stalin Nikita Khrushchev wins power struggle in 1953 after death of Stalin Denounces purgesDenounces purges deStalinization – loosened government control of press, decentralized economic decision makingdeStalinization – loosened government control of press, decentralized economic decision making Relaxed Cold War tensionRelaxed Cold War tension Failure in Cuban Missile Crisis resulted in replacement by conservative BrezhnevFailure in Cuban Missile Crisis resulted in replacement by conservative Brezhnev

17 Political and Economic Change Three major periods Three major periods ReformReform Mikhail Gorbachev ( ) Mikhail Gorbachev ( ) Westernizer attempting to save USSR from collapseWesternizer attempting to save USSR from collapse Glasnost – openness, allowed political discussion and criticism Glasnost – openness, allowed political discussion and criticism Democratization – created a directly elected Congress of Peoples Deputies, and a President selected by Congress, later elected Democratization – created a directly elected Congress of Peoples Deputies, and a President selected by Congress, later elected Perestroika – transfer of state economic powers to the market, like authorization of privately owned companies, penalties for under-performing state businesses Perestroika – transfer of state economic powers to the market, like authorization of privately owned companies, penalties for under-performing state businesses

18 Political and Economic Change Failed Coup and Revolution of 1991 Failed Coup and Revolution of 1991 Coup to remove Gorbechev in August led by conservatives, vice-president, head of KGB, top military brassCoup to remove Gorbechev in August led by conservatives, vice-president, head of KGB, top military brass Ended by popular protest, defection of soldiersEnded by popular protest, defection of soldiers Protesters led by Boris Yeltsin, recently elected President of Russia Protesters led by Boris Yeltsin, recently elected President of Russia Had been removed from Politburo due to extreme views, but won popular electionHad been removed from Politburo due to extreme views, but won popular election 11 republics declared independence after the coup, leading Gorbechev to announce the end of the U.S.S.R.11 republics declared independence after the coup, leading Gorbechev to announce the end of the U.S.S.R. Yeltsin initiates shock therapy – rapid conversion to market economyYeltsin initiates shock therapy – rapid conversion to market economy

19 Political and Economic Change Modern Russia Modern Russia Yeltsin resigned unexpectedly in 1999Yeltsin resigned unexpectedly in 1999 Perpetual economic decline in the 1990s Perpetual economic decline in the 1990s Loans for Shares scandal Loans for Shares scandal Inability to work with Duma Inability to work with Duma Numerous diseases, including alcoholism Numerous diseases, including alcoholism Rapid hiring and firing of Prime Ministers Rapid hiring and firing of Prime Ministers Resignation brings Putin to power, who wins reelection in 2000 and 2004Resignation brings Putin to power, who wins reelection in 2000 and 2004 Stability in the political and economic system Stability in the political and economic system Retreat from democratic commitments of Yeltsin Retreat from democratic commitments of Yeltsin

20 Citizens, Society, and the State Cleavages Cleavages NationalityNationality 80% Russian, but many Tartars, Ukrainians, Armenians, etc. 80% Russian, but many Tartars, Ukrainians, Armenians, etc. Most well-integrated, but slightly autonomous Most well-integrated, but slightly autonomous Exception: Chechnya, predominantly Muslim, fighting for independenceException: Chechnya, predominantly Muslim, fighting for independence ReligionReligion Tsarist Russia was Eastern Orthodox Tsarist Russia was Eastern Orthodox U.S.S.R. responded by banning all religion U.S.S.R. responded by banning all religion Yeltsin encouraged Orthodoxy again Yeltsin encouraged Orthodoxy again Most Russians say they are Orthodox, but rarely attend services Most Russians say they are Orthodox, but rarely attend services

21 Religious/Ethnic Affiliation in Russia Religion Religion Russian Orthodox – 15-20%Russian Orthodox – 15-20% Muslim – 10-15%Muslim – 10-15% Other Christian – 2%Other Christian – 2% Non-practicing or non-religious is largest segmentNon-practicing or non-religious is largest segment Ethnicity Ethnicity Russian – 79.8% Tartar – 3.8% Ukrainian – 2% Chuvash – 1.1% Other – 12.1%

22 Citizens, Society, and the State Cleavages Cleavages Social ClassSocial Class Tsarist Russian nobles/peasant class system Tsarist Russian nobles/peasant class system CPSU membership and nomenklatura replaced nobility as a status symbol, though egalitarian and blind to social background CPSU membership and nomenklatura replaced nobility as a status symbol, though egalitarian and blind to social background Now appears that market economy and entrepreneurship is becoming the basis of social class divisions Now appears that market economy and entrepreneurship is becoming the basis of social class divisions Oligarchs – wealthy individuals believed to be pulling the strings of the government, and benefiting from preferential treatmentOligarchs – wealthy individuals believed to be pulling the strings of the government, and benefiting from preferential treatment Urban (73%) vs. RuralUrban (73%) vs. Rural

23 Citizens, Society, and the State Beliefs and Attitudes Beliefs and Attitudes Mistrust of the governmentMistrust of the government StatismStatism Economic beliefs – right/left divisions formed since Yeltsins reformsEconomic beliefs – right/left divisions formed since Yeltsins reforms Conservatives are those who support the good old days of Soviet Communism Conservatives are those who support the good old days of Soviet Communism Westernization – slavophile vs. westernizer still characterizes political divisionsWesternization – slavophile vs. westernizer still characterizes political divisions

24 Citizens, Society, and the State Political Participation Political Participation Elections – voter turnout around 65-70% typically for presidentElections – voter turnout around 65-70% typically for president Civil SocietyCivil Society Undeveloped private organizations (people dont attend church, join recreational clubs, labor unions, etc.) Undeveloped private organizations (people dont attend church, join recreational clubs, labor unions, etc.) Soviet system was state corporatism, party controlled all private groups Soviet system was state corporatism, party controlled all private groups Government still places tight restrictions on activities of groups critical of the government Government still places tight restrictions on activities of groups critical of the government Youth Groups – created by Putin to support the governmentYouth Groups – created by Putin to support the government

25 Institutions Federal System Federal System 83 regions, 21 of which are non-Russian majority called republics83 regions, 21 of which are non-Russian majority called republics Asymmetric federalism – not all regions are equally sovereign, some are more powerful than othersAsymmetric federalism – not all regions are equally sovereign, some are more powerful than others Putins changes (since 2000)Putins changes (since 2000) Super-Districts – 7 federal districts with head appointed by president to oversee local authorities Super-Districts – 7 federal districts with head appointed by president to oversee local authorities Power for president to remove a governor Power for president to remove a governor Ended election of governors, now appointed Ended election of governors, now appointed Federation Council was comprised of the governors, now that isnt allowed Federation Council was comprised of the governors, now that isnt allowed

26 Colored regions on this map are republics, each with relatively smaller Russian ethnic compositions, and with more autonomy from the federation than other Russian regions

27 Linkage Institutions Political Parties – based on personalities, not ideology, and loyalty is weak Political Parties – based on personalities, not ideology, and loyalty is weak United Russia – party of power, built by oligarchs to help Putin get elected in 2000United Russia – party of power, built by oligarchs to help Putin get elected in 2000 CPRF – not really communist, but not reformist eitherCPRF – not really communist, but not reformist either Yabloko, Union of Right Forces – both reformist, support democratization and marketizationYabloko, Union of Right Forces – both reformist, support democratization and marketization Liberal Democrats – not liberal, not democratic, CRAZY!!Liberal Democrats – not liberal, not democratic, CRAZY!!

28 Actual things Zhirinovsky (Liberal Democrats) has said: Jews are often to blame for Anti-Semitism Jews are often to blame for Anti-Semitism Visited the U.S., said that whites were in danger of turning their country over to blacks and Hispanics. Visited the U.S., said that whites were in danger of turning their country over to blacks and Hispanics. "Condoleezza Rice needs a company of soldiers [and] needs to be taken to barracks where she would be satisfied." "Condoleezza Rice needs a company of soldiers [and] needs to be taken to barracks where she would be satisfied." Advocated use of tactical nukes on Chechnyan villages Advocated use of tactical nukes on Chechnyan villages Threatened to nuke Japan in the event of another Russo-Japanese War Threatened to nuke Japan in the event of another Russo-Japanese War claimed Russia possesses "Elipton," a weapon of mass destruction supposedly more powerful than nuclear weapons claimed Russia possesses "Elipton," a weapon of mass destruction supposedly more powerful than nuclear weapons To eradicate bird flu, he proposed arming all of Russia's population and ordering them and the troops to shoot down the migrant birds returning to Russia from wintering To eradicate bird flu, he proposed arming all of Russia's population and ordering them and the troops to shoot down the migrant birds returning to Russia from wintering accused Great Britain (according to him, "the most barbaric country on the planet") of fomenting World War I, the October Revolution, World War II, and the collapse of the Soviet Union accused Great Britain (according to him, "the most barbaric country on the planet") of fomenting World War I, the October Revolution, World War II, and the collapse of the Soviet Union Got in a juice fight during a debate in Got in a juice fight during a debate in 1995.

29 Linkage Institutions Elections Elections ReferendumReferendum used for Constitution of 1993 used for Constitution of 1993 regional Constitutions like Chechnyas that declared it an inseparable part of Russia regional Constitutions like Chechnyas that declared it an inseparable part of Russia DumaDuma 450 seats, was ½ SMD, ½ PR with a 5% threshold 450 seats, was ½ SMD, ½ PR with a 5% threshold Changed by Putin to fully PR with a 7% threshold Changed by Putin to fully PR with a 7% threshold

30 2003 Results, prior to Putins changes

31 2007, after changes to the system

32 Linkage Institutions Elections Elections ReferendumReferendum used for Constitution of 1993 used for Constitution of 1993 regional Constitutions like Chechnyas that declared it an inseparable part of Russia regional Constitutions like Chechnyas that declared it an inseparable part of Russia DumaDuma 450 seats, was ½ SMD, ½ PR with a 5% threshold 450 seats, was ½ SMD, ½ PR with a 5% threshold Changed by Putin to fully PR with a 7% threshold Changed by Putin to fully PR with a 7% threshold PresidentialPresidential 2-ballot majority 2-ballot majority Questionable in fairness and competitiveness (Putin won 71% in 2004) Questionable in fairness and competitiveness (Putin won 71% in 2004)

33 Linkage Institutions Interest Groups Interest Groups Formerly only allowed by CPSU under state corporatismFormerly only allowed by CPSU under state corporatism Putin has returned to a similar systemPutin has returned to a similar system Oligarchs Oligarchs 1991 move to market system allowed many insiders (nomenklatura) to purchase state- owned industries for almost nothing1991 move to market system allowed many insiders (nomenklatura) to purchase state- owned industries for almost nothing Controlled early political processes, propped up Yeltsin and later PutinControlled early political processes, propped up Yeltsin and later Putin Ex. Berezovsky used his TV networks to help both, later worked with other oligarchs to create Unity Party Ex. Berezovsky used his TV networks to help both, later worked with other oligarchs to create Unity Party Putin now solidifying control and loyalty from oligarchsPutin now solidifying control and loyalty from oligarchs Arrest of Khodorkovsky who financed opposition Arrest of Khodorkovsky who financed opposition Arrest and seize of Gusinskys TV company Arrest and seize of Gusinskys TV company

34 Linkage Institutions Russian Mafia – gained a lot of power in chaos of 1991, control local businesses Russian Mafia – gained a lot of power in chaos of 1991, control local businesses Russian Media – privately owned, effectively state controlled Russian Media – privately owned, effectively state controlled Critical journalists often get killed mysteriouslyCritical journalists often get killed mysteriously Journalists Union was evicted to give the building to Russia Today channel, state owned to promote Russias image abroadJournalists Union was evicted to give the building to Russia Today channel, state owned to promote Russias image abroad

35 State Institutions President and Prime Minister President and Prime Minister Semi-Presidential systemSemi-Presidential system President – head of statePresident – head of state Directly elected by voters Directly elected by voters Appoints prime minister and cabinet Appoints prime minister and cabinet appointments may be rejected by Duma, but Duma is dissolved if they reject the choice 3 timesappointments may be rejected by Duma, but Duma is dissolved if they reject the choice 3 times Can issue decrees that have the force of law Can issue decrees that have the force of law Can dissolve the Duma and call for new elections Can dissolve the Duma and call for new elections Prime Minister – head of governmentPrime Minister – head of government not majority party leader, usually a career bureaucrat loyal to the President not majority party leader, usually a career bureaucrat loyal to the President Becomes president if president dies or resigns Becomes president if president dies or resigns Putin attempted to transfer control of military and FSB to Prime Minister before becoming PM Putin attempted to transfer control of military and FSB to Prime Minister before becoming PM

36 State Institutions Bicameral Legislature, Federal Assembly Bicameral Legislature, Federal Assembly Lower House, the State DumaLower House, the State Duma 450 Deputies, elected by PR 450 Deputies, elected by PR Passes bills, approves budget, confirms presidential appointments Passes bills, approves budget, confirms presidential appointments Powers are limited due to presidents ability to pass law through decree Powers are limited due to presidents ability to pass law through decree Process of impeachment and rejecting appointments are effectively useless Process of impeachment and rejecting appointments are effectively useless Upper House, Federation CouncilUpper House, Federation Council 2 members from each of 84 regions, 168 members 2 members from each of 84 regions, 168 members One elected by provincial legislature, one appointed by regional governorOne elected by provincial legislature, one appointed by regional governor Can only really delay legislation – can be overridden by State Duma Can only really delay legislation – can be overridden by State Duma

37 State Institutions The Judiciary The Judiciary Constitutional CourtConstitutional Court Attempt by Constitution of 1993 to create independent judicial system Attempt by Constitution of 1993 to create independent judicial system 19 members appointed by president, confirmed by Federation Council 19 members appointed by president, confirmed by Federation Council Supposed to have judicial review Supposed to have judicial review Supreme CourtSupreme Court Final place to appeal civil and criminal cases Final place to appeal civil and criminal cases Problem – most attorneys were trained in the old Soviet systemProblem – most attorneys were trained in the old Soviet system Courts dont tend to challenge governmentCourts dont tend to challenge government

38 State Institutions The Military The Military 4 million members, most in world (compare to #2 U.S. at under 1.5 million)4 million members, most in world (compare to #2 U.S. at under 1.5 million) Source of power of CPSU from 1945 to 1991, but never challenged authority of PolitburoSource of power of CPSU from 1945 to 1991, but never challenged authority of Politburo Showing no signs of becoming a political institutionShowing no signs of becoming a political institution


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