Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1) Marxism 2) Leninism 3) Stalinism 4) Maoism 5) The Crisis of Communism.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "1) Marxism 2) Leninism 3) Stalinism 4) Maoism 5) The Crisis of Communism."— Presentation transcript:


2 1) Marxism 2) Leninism 3) Stalinism 4) Maoism 5) The Crisis of Communism

3  The political and economic theory of communism was developed by the German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the mid 1840s.  Marx believed that workers (the proletariat) were being exploited by the capitalists (bourgeoisie)  In the mid 19 th century workers were made to work long hours in horrible conditions and paid very little wages- Marx wanted to replace this system  Marx advocated a proletarian revolution where the workers would overthrow the capitalist state and create a worker’s dictatorship- he predicted this would happen in industrialized Western Europe not Russia

4  In Marx’s communist state:  One Party State- Communist Worker’s Party  Command Economy: The state would control prices and distribution- all citizens would receive an equal share of goods and there would be no private property or social classes  Economic and Social Equality

5  It was in Russia where the first Communist Revolution occurred in 1917  Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks overthrew the Russian Tsar and established the Soviet Union


7  Workers did not play a major role in the Russian Revolution since there were not many organized worker’s movements or labor unions in Russia  Lenin’s Revolution was carried out by a professional group of largely middle-class Communist revolutionaries

8  Lenin introduced the concept of democratic centralism : Party members would be able to criticize policy and make suggestions but once a decision was made, all had to follow and obey – feature of many Communist regimes  In practice, democratic centralism was not very democratic and did not work as Lenin had planned

9  After Lenin’s death, there was a power struggle- Joseph Stalin assumed complete control in 1927 and created the first totalitarian state  Stalin used the mass media to control the population and mobilize citizens for the Party’s goals

10  Collectivization: abolition of private farms, forcing peasants to move on to large common farms where they would work for the state  Heavy industry: using massive numbers of peasants to build railways, make steel, mine coal with the goal of rapid industrialization  Gulags: those who did not comply, obey would be sent to labor camps in Siberia


12  Since rational-legal and traditional legitimacy were low, Stalin used charismatic legitimacy to solidify his rule  Stalin’s photos and statues were found on every street in every major Soviet village and city  School children were made to worship Stalin

13  The Politburo was formally created: top officials who make decisions- feature of most Communist regimes  The position of the General Secretary: leader of the Communist Party and head of state  Nomenklatura: all Communist Party members had to be approved by the Party elite- the only way to be promoted to high level positions was to follow directions and be in the General Secretary’s “good books”

14  The second major Communist Revolution occurred in China  Unlike in Russia, it was the peasants who carried out the Communist Revolution in China  Mao Zedong mobilized the peasants on the Long March (1934) and later to fight against the Japanese forces and Kuomintang nationalists

15  Mao continued the practices of Stalin, introducing collectivization, promoting heavy industry, and controlling the masses, and developing his own cult of personality

16 Left: Mao leading peasants on the Long March (1934) Right: Mao surrounded by peasant students during the Cultural Revolution (1966)

17  After the Cultural Revolution and the death of Mao in 1976, China was in severe economic trouble- years of economic mismanagement led a new leader to rethink traditional Marxism-Leninism and follow a different path

18  Beginning in 1978 Deng introduced a number of economic reforms to boost China’s economy : 1) creation of Special Economic Zones in Xiamen, Shenzhen.. 2) encouragement of foreign investment 3) allowing private enterprise to operate These reforms were pragmatic but were completely opposed to classic Marxism-Leninsm

19  Other Communist states such as Vietnam have followed Deng’s model Economic reforms but without major political reforms

20  In 1989 Communist General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev introduced political reforms (glasnost: democratization) and economic reforms (perestroika: privatization)  Hard-line Communists attempted a coup to replace Gorbachev  Meanwhile many former Soviet states such as Latvia, Lithuania had declared independence  Both the Party and the Soviet Economy were in chaos, and the regime collapsed in 1991



23  Arms race with US and Western states cost the Soviet Economy billions  Information Age: it’s increasingly more difficult for authoritarian regimes to restrict their citizens’ access to the internet and other media sources  Globalization: increasing pressure to fit in to the world trading system

24  Communist states have low traditional and rational-legal legitimacy and often must resort to coercion at some point to maintain power- Examples: Stalin’s Gulags 1956 Hungarian protest against Soviet Communism 1968 Czech demonstration against Soviet Union 1989 Tienanmen Square student demonstrations in Beijing


26  The only “true Marxist” Communist states remaining are Cuba and North Korea  Both are totalitarian states, but are isolated politically and economically from the international community


Download ppt "1) Marxism 2) Leninism 3) Stalinism 4) Maoism 5) The Crisis of Communism."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google