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RUSSIA. History The Tsarist regime Bolshevik revolution (1917) Lenin (1917-24) Stalin (1924-53) Gorbachev (1985-91) Demise of the USSR – Yeltsin (1991-99)

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Presentation on theme: "RUSSIA. History The Tsarist regime Bolshevik revolution (1917) Lenin (1917-24) Stalin (1924-53) Gorbachev (1985-91) Demise of the USSR – Yeltsin (1991-99)"— Presentation transcript:

1 RUSSIA

2 History The Tsarist regime Bolshevik revolution (1917) Lenin ( ) Stalin ( ) Gorbachev ( ) Demise of the USSR – Yeltsin ( ) – Putin(2000-

3 Political Economy From communism to capitalism – Economic assets owned by the state – Mass education and low inequality : Gorbachev’s limited reforms Yeltsin’s «shock therapy» – Privatizing SOEs – Opening economy to foreign investors

4 Political Economy The rise of the oligarchs – Loans for shares – Russian capitalists with connections Agricultural production declined, imports replaced domestic products

5 Which is why the recent food sanctions are important for Russia

6 Political Economy Russian economy heavily reliant on gas Resource curse: – corrupt politics – unstable terms of trade, because the prices of natural resources fluctuate widely. – hinders development of competitive manufacturing 1998 economic crisis

7 Political Economy Putin and the oligarchs Media, Yukos allegations of tax evasion – Press freedom 148/180 (world press freedom index) Corruption: state capture Firms shaping laws Cutbacks in welfare programs Weak tradition of individual entrepreneurship Reliance on personal trust not contracts

8 Governance and Policymaking A strong President – To lead in a period of transition – Legacy of a strong state tradition Dual executive – President and the Prime Minister Bicameral legislature: Federal Assembly The Soviet legacy of hierarchical organization Communist Party of the Soviet Union Party dominance then  individual leaders’ dominance today

9 Governance and Policymaking 1993 Constitution: Semi-presidential system President: – Directly elected for 6 years, 2 consecutive terms. – foreign affairs, security, relations with regions – Appoints the PM, approval of the Parliament lower house (Duma) If Duma rejects the PM three times, President can dissolve it – Proposes members of Constitutional, Supreme courts, which are approved by Duma – Right to call a state of emergency, call referendums

10 Governance and Policymaking Presidential decrees have force of law until the Parliament passes a formal legislation Yeltsin used decrees more often than Putin Impeachment for treason is possible – Federal Assembly+ Supreme Court+Constitutional Court PM: economy and related areas – PM can be removed by Duma with two consecutive votes of no confidence

11 Governance and Policymaking State may own control of shares in key firms. Gazprom: federal government owns 50% Several TV stations are publicly owned Judiciary – The Constitutional Court is cautious not to confront the executive

12 Governance and Policymaking Federation according to constitution Central government- constituent units have powers – Constituent units: republics, regions, districts, cities Ethnic groups are regionally concentrated – Central government sensitive relationship with ethnic republics, e.g. Tatarstan, Chechnya – President appoints regional heads since 2004

13 Governance and Policymaking Legislature Duma (Lower chamber): 450 seats – Since 2005 – directly elected by proportional representation – 7% threshold Federal Council (upper chamber): 170 seats, 2 each unit – 1993: directly elected representatives – 2000: one appointed by the regional head, the other by the regional legislature

14 Legislative Process DUMA FEDERAL COUNCIL Approve If rejects, Duma can override by 2/3 votes PRESIDENT 2/3 votes of both chambers veto

15 Security and governance Beslan hostage crisis 2004

16 Security and governance Putin used Beslan (N. Ossetia) as an excuse to further centralize power Foreign-funded NGOs are restricted

17 Political Parties Left (social state slow reforms) Nationalist (no westernization) Liberal (rapid market reforms and integration with West) Centrist: United Russia mix of all


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