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Presentation on theme: "RUSSIA."— Presentation transcript:


2 History The Tsarist regime Bolshevik revolution (1917) Lenin (1917-24)
Stalin ( ) Gorbachev ( ) Demise of the USSR Yeltsin ( ) Putin(2000-

3 Political Economy From communism to capitalism
Economic assets owned by the state Mass education and low inequality : Gorbachev’s limited reforms 1992- Yeltsin’s «shock therapy» Privatizing SOEs Opening economy to foreign investors

4 Political Economy The rise of the oligarchs
Loans for shares Russian capitalists with connections Agricultural production declined, imports replaced domestic products

5 Which is why the recent food sanctions are important for Russia

6 Political Economy Russian economy heavily reliant on gas
Resource curse: corrupt politics unstable terms of trade, because the prices of natural resources fluctuate widely. hinders development of competitive manufacturing 1998 economic crisis

7 Political Economy Putin and the oligarchs
Media, Yukos allegations of tax evasion Press freedom 148/180 (world press freedom index) Corruption: state capture Firms shaping laws Cutbacks in welfare programs Weak tradition of individual entrepreneurship Reliance on personal trust not contracts

8 Governance and Policymaking
A strong President To lead in a period of transition Legacy of a strong state tradition Dual executive President and the Prime Minister Bicameral legislature: Federal Assembly The Soviet legacy of hierarchical organization Communist Party of the Soviet Union Party dominance then  individual leaders’ dominance today

9 Governance and Policymaking
1993 Constitution: Semi-presidential system President: Directly elected for 6 years, 2 consecutive terms. foreign affairs, security, relations with regions Appoints the PM, approval of the Parliament lower house (Duma) If Duma rejects the PM three times, President can dissolve it Proposes members of Constitutional, Supreme courts, which are approved by Duma Right to call a state of emergency, call referendums

10 Governance and Policymaking
Presidential decrees have force of law until the Parliament passes a formal legislation Yeltsin used decrees more often than Putin Impeachment for treason is possible Federal Assembly+ Supreme Court+Constitutional Court PM: economy and related areas PM can be removed by Duma with two consecutive votes of no confidence

11 Governance and Policymaking
State may own control of shares in key firms. Gazprom: federal government owns 50% Several TV stations are publicly owned Judiciary The Constitutional Court is cautious not to confront the executive

12 Governance and Policymaking
Federation according to constitution Central government- constituent units have powers Constituent units: republics, regions, districts, cities Ethnic groups are regionally concentrated Central government sensitive relationship with ethnic republics, e.g. Tatarstan, Chechnya President appoints regional heads since 2004

13 Governance and Policymaking
Legislature Duma (Lower chamber): 450 seats Since 2005 directly elected by proportional representation 7% threshold Federal Council (upper chamber): 170 seats, 2 each unit 1993: directly elected representatives 2000: one appointed by the regional head, the other by the regional legislature

14 Legislative Process DUMA FEDERAL COUNCIL Approve
If rejects, Duma can override by 2/3 votes 2/3 votes of both chambers veto PRESIDENT

15 Security and governance
Beslan hostage crisis 2004

16 Security and governance
Putin used Beslan (N. Ossetia) as an excuse to further centralize power Foreign-funded NGOs are restricted

17 Political Parties Left (social state slow reforms)
Nationalist (no westernization) Liberal (rapid market reforms and integration with West) Centrist: United Russia mix of all

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