Presentation on theme: "Rise of Communism. Causes of Revolutions and Socialist movements By the early 1900’s and into the 20 th Century, the ingredients for revolutions were."— Presentation transcript:
Causes of Revolutions and Socialist movements By the early 1900’s and into the 20 th Century, the ingredients for revolutions were present in many countries: In many countries, autocratic governments, (ruled by a King, a Czar, or Monarch), still existed which allow little political freedoms to individual citizens Economic inequality was rampant, especially between the bourgeoisie class and proletariat classes. This divide was larger in countries slow to industrialize or in countries where industrialization was left unchecked. Catastrophic national events such as war, economic collapses, famine, and/or failure of the existing government to provide a stable environment for its citizens served as catalyst for uprisings and radical political shifts. Imperialism created political strife between indigenous populations and controlling Western Nations, establishing an environment for revolutions and new political entities, (many of which looked for support from either socialist or democratic countries). World War I, as well as later global and regional conflicts, served as a major
Communist movements and Revolutions Intro In Europe, countries decimated by WWI saw the growth of radical political groups, often in the form of urban gangs. Governments were in their infancy due to revolutions or the establishment of new nations at the end of the war. In Germany, a communist movement attempted to take control unsuccessfully. Rosa Luxemburg was a leader of the movement, put to death in 1919 The new nations established from old Austria Hungary saw socialist groups fight for control, often failing without enough support. Communism was much more successful in Russia, where V.I. Lenin would take lead socialist to take control from the Czar.
State of Russia at turn of Century (1900’s) In the Early 1900’s, Russia had fallen well behind industrialized Europe. Their government was still run by an absolutist Czar, Nicholas II, of the Romanov dynasty. The Czar rule had become weak and disorganized. Socialist organizations seized on Russia’s desperate situation to gain power Huge social and economic inequality (serfdom, industrial) The Russians lost an embarrassing war to Japan in 1905 The citizens of Russia were desperately hungry and landless. WWI was a disaster Ill equipped, no leadership Millions killed, no reason to fight for
End of the Tsar---March 1917 Revolution In 1917, the army joined civilians, turned on Czar. Nicholas II was forced to resign (abdicate). A provisional government: Alexander Kerensky. The new government supported the war, upsetting the army and the country The Bolsheviks, a radical socialist led by V.I. Lenin, became dedicated to a violent revolution using peasants and the working class to overthrow the capitalist system. 1917, Germany snuck exiled Lenin back into Russia understanding he would overthrow the new Russian Government, end the war.
November 1917 Revolution In November 1917 a second took place: Lenin and Bolsheviks took power Fought for “Peace, Land, Bread” Treaty of Brest-Litvosk ended war The Bolsheviks renamed communist Lenin used secret police (Cheka) to terrorize non communist Civil war erupted between White (Anti Communist) and Red (Communist) Allies supported Anti Communist, sent troops, supplies —angered native Russians Leon Trotsky was excellent leader of Communist forces, defeated larger Anti communist
Lenin’s Rule Lenin’s communist party seized control of industry and agriculture production Caused problems, peasants ready to revolt Lenin allowed limited capitalism to help ease problem (NEP program) In 1922 Russia officially became Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R) Lenin died in 1924 Power struggle ensued, Stalin took power Rival Trotsky killed by Stalin
Stalin and Soviet Legacy Under Stalin’s rule, Soviet Union would transform into stricter communism Ended Lenin’s NEP plan, transformed USSR from agriculture to industry (5 year plan) Emphasized military build up, oil and heavy machinery Stalin required all production used for State Stalin a vicious ruler, millions killed Used terror, secret police to stop uprisings USSR would become supporter of communist around the world 2 Sides, Democracy vs. Communism.