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OBJECTIVE: Analyze the cultural achievements of the Ancient Egyptians.

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1 OBJECTIVE: Analyze the cultural achievements of the Ancient Egyptians.


3 Environment Nile River flows north longest in world
flooding provides silt predictable farming wheat barley irrigation travel & trade

4 Environment Nile River
worshipped by Egyptians as god who gave them life East – land of living sunrise cities, temples West – land of dead sunset tombs

5 Environment Deserts lack of rain Arabian Libyan
east of Nile Libyan west of Nile both are part of Sahara Villages & cities built along Nile River first farming villages about 5000 BCE

6 Quick Write What are some geographical similarities between Egypt and Mesopotamia?

7 Egypt Unites Menes (Narmer) Pschent
King who united Upper & Lower Egypt into one kingdom Double crown around 3000 BCE Capital at Memphis Deshret of Lower Egypt Hedjet of Upper Egypt

8 Ptolemy VI

9 Pharaohs: God Kings Theocracy Pharaohs
government in which rule is based on religious authority Pharaohs fully responsible for kingdom religion military run government promote justice & truth believed to make sun rise

10 Pharaohs: God Kings Ka eternal life force of king
continued after death needs & pleasures must continue to be met

11 Pharaohs: God Kings Pyramids final resting place
represent economic strength, technology & leadership of Egyptian civilization

12 Religion Polytheistic more than 2000 gods & goddesses
believed in afterlife Anubis weighed each dead person’s heart all classes prepared for burials upper classes had great tombs filled with clothes, gems, tools, art


14 Ancient Egyptians Part II
OBJECTIVE: Analyze the cultural achievements of the Ancient Egyptians.

15 Pyramids built by peasants Giza completed about BCE


17 Pyramid of Khufu an almost perfect square (deviation .05%)
Orientation is exactly North, South, East, West 2,300,000 blocks, almost 500 ft high 20 years to build Average block weighs 2.5 tons Some weigh 9 tons!

18 Social Classes king, queen, family
wealthy landowners, gov’t officials, priests, army commanders artisans & merchants peasant farmers & laborers largest slaves from war

19 Writing Hieroglyphics “sacred carving” started with pictures
grew to resemble an alphabet first on stone & clay later papyrus

20 Writing The Rosetta Stone discovered by Napoleon’s troops 1799

21 Calendar Features: 365 days 12 months 30 days each 5 holidays tracked:
flooding planting harvesting

22 Artwork

23 Art

24 History Old Kingdom 2660-2160 BCE
ends with decline of pharaohs influence civil wars

25 History Middle Kingdom 2060-1750 BCE strong pharaohs
restored order improved irrigation, trade, transportation with canal from Nile to Red Sea Hyksos invade from Palestine rule from BCE

26 History New Kingdom 1550-1070 BCE
Ahmose I expelled the invading Hyksos and reunited Egypt Known as the Empire period

27 History New Kingdom Militaristic & imperialistic nature
incorporated chariot, bronze, horses development of a professional army became a slave based economy fueled by war and expansion

28 History Ramses II 1279-1213 BCE greatest New Kingdom ruler
military leader of Egypt expanded into southern Turkey built many monuments to himself last gasp of Egyptian power



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