Presentation on theme: "Ancient Egyptians OBJECTIVE: Analyze the cultural achievements of the Ancient Egyptians."— Presentation transcript:
Ancient Egyptians OBJECTIVE: Analyze the cultural achievements of the Ancient Egyptians.
Environment Nile River –flows north –longest in world –flooding provides silt predictable –farming wheat barley –irrigation –travel & trade
Environment Nile River –worshipped by Egyptians as god who gave them life East – land of living –sunrise –cities, temples West – land of dead –sunset –tombs
Environment Deserts –lack of rain –Arabian east of Nile –Libyan west of Nile –both are part of Sahara –Villages & cities built along Nile River first farming villages about 5000 BCE
Quick Write What are some geographical similarities between Egypt and Mesopotamia?
Egypt Unites Menes (Narmer) –King who united Upper & Lower Egypt into one kingdom –Double crown around 3000 BCE –Capital at Memphis Deshret of Lower EgyptHedjet of Upper Egypt Pschent
Pharaohs: God Kings Theocracy –government in which rule is based on religious authority Pharaohs –fully responsible for kingdom religion military run government promote justice & truth –believed to make sun rise
Pharaohs: God Kings Ka –eternal life force of king –continued after death –needs & pleasures must continue to be met
Pharaohs: God Kings Pyramids –final resting place –represent economic strength, technology & leadership of Egyptian civilization
Religion Polytheistic –more than 2000 gods & goddesses –believed in afterlife Anubis –weighed each dead persons heart all classes prepared for burials upper classes had great tombs –filled with clothes, gems, tools, art
Ancient Egyptians Part II OBJECTIVE: Analyze the cultural achievements of the Ancient Egyptians.
Pyramids built by peasants Giza –completed about 2556 BCE
Pyramid of Khufu an almost perfect square (deviation.05%) Orientation is exactly North, South, East, West 2,300,000 blocks, almost 500 ft high 20 years to build Average block weighs 2.5 tons –Some weigh 9 tons!
Social Classes 1.king, queen, family 2.wealthy landowners, govt officials, priests, army commanders 3.artisans & merchants 4.peasant farmers & laborers –largest 5.slaves from war
Writing Hieroglyphics –sacred carving –started with pictures –grew to resemble an alphabet –first on stone & clay later papyrus
Writing The Rosetta Stone –discovered by Napoleons troops 1799
Calendar Features: –365 days –12 months –30 days each –5 holidays –tracked: flooding planting harvesting
History Old Kingdom – BCE –ends with decline of pharaohs influence civil wars
History Middle Kingdom – BCE –strong pharaohs restored order –improved irrigation, trade, transportation with canal from Nile to Red Sea –Hyksos invade from Palestine rule from BCE
History New Kingdom – BCE –Ahmose I expelled the invading Hyksos and reunited Egypt –Known as the Empire period
History New Kingdom –Militaristic & imperialistic nature –incorporated chariot, bronze, horses –development of a professional army –became a slave based economy fueled by war and expansion
History Ramses II – BCE –greatest New Kingdom ruler –military leader of Egypt –expanded into southern Turkey –built many monuments to himself –last gasp of Egyptian power