Presentation on theme: "Pyramids on the Nile. Egypt Unlike Sumerian culture – Egypt had one united Kingdom No city states which created a stable environment for over 3000 years."— Presentation transcript:
Pyramids on the Nile
Egypt Unlike Sumerian culture – Egypt had one united Kingdom No city states which created a stable environment for over 3000 years
Geography of Egypt Nile River- 4,100 miles long- longest river in world Settlements arose along the Nile 7000 B.C. Land made fertile by flooding of river Black Land (fertile) vs. Red Land (desert)
The Gift of the Nile Rain and melting snow caused the Nile to flood (July) When it receded it left silt (October) Water highway- unified villages and promoted trade Nile was a god to Egyptians Gave life
Environmental Challenges Egyptian farmers more fortunate than Sumerian Nile was regular unlike Tigris and Euphrates However, other risks: Lower water level= less silt= less crops= starvation Higher water level= destruction of houses, granaries and seeds planted Deserts on sides= less farmable/livable land and less interaction w/ other people
Upper and Lower Egypt Upper Egypt- river area in the south from First Cataract to point where river branches out Elevation is higher Cataract – churning rapids
Lower Egypt- to the north near the Mediterranean Sea. Delta region- broad, marshy, triangular area of land formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of the river.Delta region-
3200 BC Villages of Egypt were under the rule of 2 separate kingdoms ~Lower and upper Eventually they united – unsure who did it though?
Egypt Unites into a Kingdom Conflicting evidence King Scorpion or King Narmer (more evidence) King of Lower Egypt Red crown King of Upper Egypt white crown Narmer created a double crown Symbolized a unified kingdom Around 3000 B.C.
Narmer made his capital city Memphis
Pharaohs Rule as Gods In Egypt, kings were Gods Pharaohs Center of religion, govt., and army – almost as powerful as the gods. Caused the sun to rise, the Nile to flood Theocracy rule based on religious authority
Pyramids King ruled even after death Ka- eternal life force Reigned forever Tombs in pyramids – needed a very important resting place Pyramids represented strength of Egyptians Economic strength, tech. means Leadership and govt. organization
Pyramids at Giza – each block about 2 ½ tons – some 15 2 million blocks stacked made one pyramid
Egyptians polytheistic – Re- the sun god Osiris – god of the dead Isis – the most important! Mother and wife god 2000 gods Mummification – For Royal Egyptians
Science and Technology Calendar – came up with 365 ¼ days in a year System of written numbers Assess and collect taxes Geometry Architecture Medicine Pulse Splints surgery