Presentation on theme: "9/30 Focus: Pharaohs established governments in Egypt where they had absolute power The Nile River helped unite the upper and lower kingdoms of Egypt Do."— Presentation transcript:
1 9/30 Focus:Pharaohs established governments in Egypt where they had absolute powerThe Nile River helped unite the upper and lower kingdoms of EgyptDo Now:List geographic characteristics of the Nile River Valley
2 10/1 Focus:The Egyptians viewed their pharaohs as a living godHistorians divide the history of ancient Egypt into three periodsDo Now:What effect did the desert and cataracts on the Nile have on the development of Egyptian culture?
3 Protected by natural barriers Warm ClimateFloods were predictableLong Growing SeasonRivers used for transportationUnpredictable floodingFertile SoilNo natural barriers allows cultural diffusion
4 History and Government Ancient EgyptHistory and Government
5 Unification Early Egypt was divided into two kingdoms Upper EgyptLower EgyptEgypt was united in 3100 BCE by MenesMade Memphis the capitalEstablished the first dynasty
7 Ancient Egyptian History PeriodsTime FrameNile Culture Begins3900 B. C. E.Archaic3100 – 2650 B. C. E.Old Kingdom2650 – 2134 B. C. E.Middle Kingdom2040 – 1640 B. C. E.New Kingdom1550 – 1070 B. C. E.Late Period750 – 332 B. C. E.Greek Ptolemaic Era332 – 30 B. C. E.Roman Period30 B. C. E. – 395 C. E.
8 Old Kingdom The Old Kingdom Begins 2650 BCE Time of Growth and ProsperityPyramids constructedPharaohs with absolute power establish strong governments
9 Middle Kingdom Difficult and turbulent time Pharaohs began to lose power to local noblesInvasions, famines, civil warsBuilt fortress up and down the NileTraded with Greeks, Phoenicians, and others around the MediterraneanConquered by the Hyksos in 1650 BCE
10 The New Kingdom Hyksos defeated Egyptians realized they needed a strong armyTook lands around them to serve as a buffer from invasion
11 The Pharaoh The King Had absolute power Pharaohs established dynasties Was believed to be a god in human formHad to perform religious rituals along with priests to ensure positive outcomes in daily lifeGov’t in Egypt was a theocracy:a state ruled by religious figuresFlashback:Were Sumerian rulers seen As Gods?No, their power came from the gods
12 Some Famous Egyptian Pharaohs Tutankhamon B. C. E.Thutmose III B. C. E.Ramses II B. C. E.
15 10/3 Focus:Ancient Egyptians believed in many gods which they believed were responsible for the annual flooding and other natural events.The ancient Egyptians had a much more positive view of the afterlife then the civilizations in MesopotamiaDo Now:Explain how the Sumerians viewed their gods and their view of the afterlife
16 Egyptian Social Classes Class system was hierarchalPeople with most power at the topLeast power on the bottomFlashback:Was the social structure in Mesopotamian civilizations such as Sumer organized in a similar manner ?Yes
17 HieroglyphicsUsed picture symbols to represent objects, sounds, and ideasWrote on papyrusPlant that grew along the NileThe Rosetta StoneDiscovered in 1799Used to translate hieroglyphicsFlashback:What was the Sumerian form of writing and what did they write on?Cuneiform was written on clay tablets