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Creating Successful, Research-Based Reading Interventions for Struggling Readers that Work! #PA058 Elizabeth D. Palacios, Ph.D., LSSP

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Presentation on theme: "Creating Successful, Research-Based Reading Interventions for Struggling Readers that Work! #PA058 Elizabeth D. Palacios, Ph.D., LSSP"— Presentation transcript:

1 Creating Successful, Research-Based Reading Interventions for Struggling Readers that Work! #PA058 Elizabeth D. Palacios, Ph.D., LSSP Floyd Harrison, Graduate Student School Psychology Graduate Program Department of Educational Psychology Baylor University, Waco, Texas (254) 710-4683 NASP 2005 Annual Convention, Atlanta, GA

2 Definition of Reading Disabilities Willcutt & Pennington (2000) define a reading disability as a developmental disorder characterized by significant underachievement on standardized tests on single-word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension, usually resulting from impaired phonological processing

3 Most reading experts agree… that a reading disability: has a biological basis & is due to a congenital neurological condition persists into adolescents & adulthood (Richek, Caldwell, Jennings, & Lerner, 2002) has perceptual, cognitive, & language dimensions often leads to difficulties in many areas of life as the individual matures (Hynd, 1992)

4 Common Practice Reading disabilities are most often diagnosed on the basis of a significant discrepancy between a childs learning potential (Intelligence Quotient score) and his/her reading achievement (reading achievement score)

5 Developmental Patterns Children do not simply grow out of it Research indicates that 74% of children significantly delayed in 3 rd grade remain significantly delayed at the end of high school (Shaywitz, et al., 2000) Grade levels of reading skills over time. children who get off to a poor start in reading rarely catch up (Torgesen, 1998) Proficient Readers Impaired Readers

6 By adolescence… the primary indications of a reading disability are: difficulty with fluency when reading aloud a very slow reading rate poor spelling (especially in the context of spontaneous writing, rather than on a spelling test)

7 Components of Reading According to the National Institutes of Health & Human Development (NICHD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), reading components include: Phonological Awareness Phonics Rules Rate Fluency Comprehension

8 Reading Interventions Torgesen proposes 3 general principles for reading interventions: Instruction must be more explicit & comprehensive Instruction must be more intensive Instruction must be more supportive

9 Reading Interventions continued Fletcher & Lyon describe the common components of effective intervention as: Explicitly teaching how to articulate positions & mouth movements associated with each phoneme Comprehensive & intensive instruction Repetition Experiences in different contexts Individualized tutoring High interest books for reading silently Comprehension strategies Vocabulary development Practice for fluency & rate

10 Struggling Readers There is an alarming rage of juvenile offenders with disabilities (an estimated 30%-50% of students in correctional system need special services) 2% - 8% school-age children have reading disabilities compared to 30% - 60% of students involved with the juvenile justice system These figures are perhaps higher since many students in the juvenile justice system remain undiagnosed

11 Behavior Health Institute (BHI): Center for Learning & Development BHI developed a reading intervention program for male adolescents placed in a long-term residential juvenile justice facility located in Central Texas. Due to the high correlation of learning disabilities and juvenile delinquency, the juvenile detention center seemed the ideal place to pilot an innovative reading program.

12 BHI: Reading Intervention Program PARTICIPANTS: 22 participants (ages 12 through 17) Average age of group was 14 yrs., 9 mos. Participants were Central Texas students in grades 5 through 11 PROCEDURE: Students were referred to the program based upon low scores on a reading pronunciation test (WRAT-Reading)

13 BHI: Reading Intervention Program PROCEDURE (CONTINUED) A more comprehensive reading assessment was then administered: Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test (LAC): determines the level of phonological awareness skills Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT): measures the reading rate, reading fluency, & reading comprehension

14 BHI: Reading Intervention Program The comprehensive reading program is approximately 12 weeks (120 hours) The intensive program addresses phonological awareness, phonics skills, reading fluency, reading rate, & reading comprehension Small groups of 4 to 5 students are each assigned a station where he interacts with the different components of the intensive program

15 BHI: Reading Intervention Program These stations provide direct instruction by a: reading specialist interactive computer program oral & silent reading practice of newly acquired skills The student works at each station for approximately 20 minutes and then rotates to the next station until all stations are completed

16 BHI: Reading Intervention Program RESULTS: After 12 weeks of intensive reading intervention (2 hours per day for an average of 120 hours), the average grade level for: Phonological awareness increased by 2.9 grade levels Fluency increased 1.7 grade level Rate increased 1.8 grade level Comprehension increased 2.3 grade levels


18 First Station: LiPs Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program for Reading, Spelling, & Speech (LiPS) Program: Only a small portion of the program is utilized Students manipulate blocks to match nonsense words The instructor works through many lists of words The words become longer & more complex as the student progresses

19 LiPS Program (continued) Benefits: Develops phonological processing skills Stimulates phonemic awareness Enables students to become self-correcting in reading, spelling, & speech Drawbacks: Requires one-on-one attention Requires the instructor to have precise speech patterns



22 Second Station: Earobics Program: teaches more advanced phonological awareness, auditory processing, phonics, & cognitive skills, as well as language skills required for comprehension



25 Third Station: Lexia Reading S.O.S. (Strategies for Older Students) Program: Computer-based phonemic awareness & decoding program Wide selection of game-like sections teach a variety of phonics & decoding skills Lesson content builds with each of five levels Automatic branching to specific skill areas lets the students practice the unit they need Progress can be monitored easily by student & teacher

26 Lexia Reading S.O.S (continued) Benefits: Students develop automatic word recognition skills Activities build phonemic awareness, sound- symbol correspondence, decoding skills, & comprehension skills Can be used with a wide range of students 4 th through 12 th grade Drawbacks: No grades are provided by the program (only units completed or passed)


28 Fourth Station: Read Naturally Program: Audio tape reading program Student is allowed one minute to read a selection cold Student places a mark where he/she had to stop after one minute Student graphs the number of words read in one minute Student listens repeatedly to an audio tape of a person reading slowly

29 Fourth Station: Read Naturally (continued) Student answers comprehension questions over reading material Student practices reading the selection alone Teacher retimes the student as he/she attempts to increase the number of words read in one minute Student graphs the final number of words read

30 Fourth Station: Read Naturally (continued) Benefits: Partner reading with tape builds fluency & vocabulary Comprehension skills are developed by questioning Graphing provides progress monitoring Students like the challenging race like nature of the program Drawbacks: Difficult for teacher to know if students are listening to the tapes Mixed levels are sometimes embarrassing for students



33 Fifth Station: PLATO/AEC A+ Learning Programs Plato Program: Focuses on reading comprehension skills Computer-based curriculum takes each student through a series of lessons addressing informational text, expository texts, & literature American Education Corp. A+dvanced Learning System Computer-based Language Arts & Reading program Teaches skills from 1 st to the 5 th grade level Student takes practice test then real test over lesson All tests are 10 multiple choice questions Lessons build on each other Benefits: Student is able to practice, learn, and test his ability in the area of vocabulary & reading comprehension

34 Sixth Station: Don Johnstons Books Program: High-interest, controlled-vocabulary reading series Narrated computer books on CDs Includes CD, paperback book, & audiocassette Students read a chapter one page at a time Students answer quizzes (cloze passage or multiple choice) after each chapter Quizzes are graded immediately & the student receives instant feedback

35 Sixth Station: Don Johnstons Books (continued) Benefits: Large choice of mature titles Students like the choices available Real number grades are provided Build fluency through more reading experience Drawbacks: Limited number of levels 2/3 and 4/5 Under-motivated students may just listen to the CD & not read the text

36 BHI: Reading Intervention Program DISCUSSION: Through intense, direct, and interactive reading instruction older students are able to improve their reading skills that most children learn at an early age Those students who have already suffered through years of humiliation & discouragement are able to experience school success Further research is needed to determine if this reading program can produce even a larger gain if delivered over a longer period of time for a greater number of hours

37 Contact Information Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing (LiPS): 800-554-1819; Earobics: - Lexia Learning Systems Reading S.O.S: School Version - 800-435-3942; Read Naturally: 800-788-4085, Plato: $1,000 – 1 station American Education Corporation A+dvanced Learning System: 800-34A-PLUS; Don Johnstons Start-to-Finish books: 800-999-4660;

38 BHI: Center for Learning & Development (254) 751-0922

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