Reading Instruction for Hearing Impaired Children in an Auditory Oral Setting Michelle Scotino Supervised by Dr. Ann Geers
The average 16 year-old hearing child has achieved a 10 th grade reading level whereas his/her deaf peer is only reading at a 3 rd grade level, (Trybus & Karchmer, 1977).
Low reading levels in hearing impaired students are predominantly attributed to language acquisition and comprehension.
Approaches to reading instruction Phonological based approach Meaning based approach
Phonological based approach The focus is on word recognition (decoding). Focuses on word attack skills and sound-letter correspondence skills.
Meaning based approach The focus is on comprehension. The comprehension of the selection or the word as a whole.
Oral and written language is divided into three basic models of comprehension. Top-down processing Bottom-up processing Interactive
Reading development should begin at birth. Reading readiness level Literary rich environment Phonemic awareness Knowledge of letters, vocabulary, and print
Factors in the development of reading Materials Motivation of student Instructor Instruction method Mode of communication
Proposed criteria for deaf pupils to achieve adequate levels of literacy. A solid language base. The ability to use that language base for the purposes of literacy. A wide general knowledge both of the world and of books and stories. Effective word-attack skills which will serve for reading and writing.
Questionnaire sent to auditory oral deaf education schools that belong to an organization known as OPTION.
Approaches currently being used PBA: Phonological Based Approach MBA: Meaning Based Approach Pre-readers 1-2 3-4>4 PBA 73% 100%75%66% MBA 73%75%87%50%
Materials currently being used Basal Readers Teacher made materials Childrens Literature Books Commercially made curricula Experience Chart Stories
All schools reported assessing the reading skills of children at all levels through a variety of techniques both formal and informal.
All schools reported using textbooks for content subjects. Homework per night that required reading averaged from 10 minutes to one hour. All schools reported that the children went to the library on average four times a month.
Critical components for a reading curriculum for a hearing impaired child in an auditory oral setting. Scale of 1-6; 1 (most important) Textbook materials 3.2 Teacher made materials 3.6 Controlled language levels of materials 3.6 Phonological decoding activities 4.1 Vocabulary building activities 2.85 Reinforcing and enriching activities 2.85
What the schools felt could be modified or changed to improve the low reading levels of hearing impaired children. Positive feedback Activities that are interesting and meaningful Early vocabulary development Exposure to a variety of language Many opportunities to read and be read to Strong phonological base High expectations Parent involvement Increased writing activities
Reading acquisition is a difficult task for both hearing and hearing impaired children but it is significantly more difficult for the hearing impaired child.
The curricula for hearing impaired children needs to be refined and reviewed by assessing the needs and successes of the children, but it also needs to be compared to that of their hearing peers achievements.