Presentation on theme: "Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R1 Streamlining the language..."— Presentation transcript:
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R1 Streamlining the language...
2 What We Know About Reading Jump Start 2006 Gordon Gibb Brigham Young University
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R3 All children can learn. School exists to advance student learning. Teachers control classroom instruction. Accountability for learning rests with those who control instruction. Accountability is driven by data.
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R4 Some Stuff to Know (Carnegie Corp., 2004) Most struggling 1 st graders do not catch up. 8 million+ struggling readers in grades 4-12 3,000+ students drop out of high school daily. Students in the lowest 25% are 20 times more likely to drop out of high school. The greatest academic concern is reading.
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R5 What do we know about reading? System of complex cognitive processes that requires recognizing and making sense of written symbols that represent speech. Readers must decode the symbol system and grasp the writer’s intended meaning.
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R6 Learning to speak is a natural process Learning to read is not
7 Component skills for reading (National Reading Panel, 2000) 1.Phonemic awareness Recognizing and manipulating the sounds of language 2.Phonics Using letters to represent sounds 3.Fluency Reading with speed, accuracy, and expression 4.Vocabulary Recognizing and using words in print or speech 5.Text comprehension Understanding and enjoying what is read
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R8 Two Factors for Comprehension (Torgesen, 2002) 1.General language comprehension skills 2.Ability to accurately and fluently identify individual words in print.
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R9 Each reading component can be assessed, and each can be taught.
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R10 A Critical Reading Difficulty (Torgesen, 2002) Acquisition of accurate and fluent word identification skills Typical 3 rd or 4 th grade poor readers will: –P–Place too much reliance on guessing from context –E–Encounter too many words they cannot read “by sight” These difficulties are manifest at the earliest stages of reading instruction
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R11 The Most Common Cause (Torgesen, 2002) Early difficulties in accurate and fluent word recognition have a common cause: Individual differences in phonological knowledge and skill
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R12 Dr. Sally Shaywitz Center for Attention and Learning Yale School of Medicine
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R13 Neural Circuitry for Reading A Tentative Model Anterior Region Conscious, deliberate thought Dorsal Region Rule-based analysis Integrates spelling and sounds Increases during phonological analysis Ventral Region Memory-based word identification Increases with faster presentation Word and pseudoword reading Activation predicts reading skill Pugh, et al., 2001 Your brain Yer face
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R14 Neural Circuitry for Reading A Tentative Model Pugh, et al., 2001 Dorsal Ventral Anterior Poor readers Good readers
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R15 Neural Circuitry for Reading A Tentative Model Automaticity Pugh, et al., 2001 Dorsal Anterior Memory-based word identification Ventral
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R16 Neural Circuitry for Reading A Tentative Model Anterior Region Conscious, deliberate thought Dorsal Region Rule-based analysis Integrates spelling and sounds Increases during phonological analysis Ventral Region Memory-based word identification Increases with faster presentation Word and pseudoword reading Activation predicts reading skill Pugh, et al., 2001
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R17 Good and Poor Reading Good readers develop word automaticity –They become fluent readers –They read with speed and accuracy Poor readers lack automaticity –They remain dysfluent readers
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R18 How do readers gain automaticity? Gaining automaticity requires: –Achievement-aligned materials –Accurate instruction –High rates of guided practice –Accurate feedback to correct errors –Practice to mastery
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R19 Instruction for at-risk readers (Torgesen, 2002) More explicit –Must make the invisible visible –Modeling, responding, correction, reinforcement More intensive –Maximize teaching/learning opportunities –Must exceed the typical classroom More supportive –More systematic and sequential instruction –More feedback on correct/incorrect responses –More positive reinforcement
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R20 We know what to do The problem isn’t that we don’t know what to do, it is that we don’t do what we know (Heward, 2003). Address the 5 essential components of reading Use explicit instructional strategies Address specific strengths and weaknesses Use coordinated instructional sequences Provide ample practice with aligned student materials (Reading First, 2002)
Jump Start 2006 CPSE 514R21 Teacher behaviors have greater impact on learning than any other factor.
22 Reading and the Brain Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Jenner, A. R., Lee, J. R., Katz, L., Frost, S. J., Shaywitz, S., & Shaywitz, B. (2001). Neuroimaging studies of reading development and reading disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16(4), 240- 249.
23 Bibliography Biancarosa, G., & Snow, C. E. (2004). Reading Next—A vision for action and research in middle and high school literacy: A report from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education Heward, W. L. (2003). Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education. The Journal of Special Education, 36(4), 186-205. Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2000). Fluency. A review of developmental practices. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan School of Education, Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement. Available at www.ciera.orgwww.ciera.org Moats, L. C (1999). Teaching reading is rocket science. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers. Torgesen, J. K. (2002). The prevention of reading difficulties. Journal of School Psychology, 40(1), 7-26. U. S. Department of Education. (2002). Guidance for the Reading First program. Washington, DC: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education.