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What Do We Mean by “America’s Reading Crisis?”

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Presentation on theme: "What Do We Mean by “America’s Reading Crisis?”"— Presentation transcript:

1 What Do We Mean by “America’s Reading Crisis?”
Louisa Moats, Ed.D.

2 We Used to Think That reading problems were primarily visual
That boys and left-handers were at greater risk That children would grow out of their problems That learning to read should be “natural” That intelligence predicted reading ability That we couldn’t diagnose reading problems until children failed to learn

3 Research Has Changed Our Views
30 years of research in reading development and learning difficulties at multiple sites by hundreds of researchers from many academic disciplines (educational psychology, cognitive psychology, neurosciences, linguistics, genetics, etc.) Several thousand articles, book chapters, books Funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD); United States Department of Education (USDOE); universities and private foundations

4 What Research? National Reading Panel (2000)
National Research Council (Snow, Burns, and Griffin, 1998) American Psychological Society (Rayner, Foorman, et al., 2001) Learning First Alliance (1998, 2000) American Speech-Language Hearing Association (2001) National Association for the Education of Young Children

5 Research Findings (NICHD)
Boys and girls are equally likely to fall behind in reading. About 40% of all children (white, black, all SES levels) are at risk for problems, depending on the quality of instruction When instruction is optimal, we can help all but about 5% by the end of first grade get the basics of reading

6 How Many People Have Reading Difficulties?
17 % of children have reading disabilities 40% of all children are “at risk” 70% of poor, Black and Hispanic children may be “below basic” According to the National Institutes of Health (NICHD Branch)

7 What causes reading difficulties?
Not just “being poor” I.Q. Not simply “low IQ” Not simply because parents didn’t read enough

8 Which of these is most important?
Knowledge of the world Being read a story every day Knowing the letter names Having good eyesight A good vocabulary Having an intact family Awareness of speech sounds Overall maturity Right handedness

9 Which of these is most important?
Knowledge of the world Being read a story every day Knowing the letter names Having good eyesight A good vocabulary Having an intact family Awareness of speech sounds Overall maturity Right handedness

10 Moats

11 IQ Tests Are Irrelevant to Identifying Reading Problems
Reading Difficulty Groups IQ- Consistent Age Adjusted Standardized Score 1 0.5 IQ-Discrepant -0.5 -1 -1.5 Problem Solving Concept Phonological Rapid Naming Vocabulary Paired Associate Visual Motor Formation Awareness Learning Moats

12 Children Don’t Catch Up…
Once children fall behind, they are likely to stay behind and the gap is likely to widen C. Juel, 1994 (Harvard Graduate School of Education) J. Torgesen, K. Stanovich, F. Vellutino (NICHD) A. Biemiller (Toronto) R. Good, E. Kame’enui, D. Simmons (U. of Oregon) S. Shaywitz and J. Fletcher (Connecticut Longitudinal Study)

13 Growth Rate Toward Reading Achievement Is Established Early

14 The Natural History of Reading Difficulty
Trouble with speech sounds (K) Trouble learning the alphabetic code (1st) Slow, laborious reading (2nd, 3rd) Little practice, limited reading (3rd, 4th) Stagnant vocabulary (4th +) Can’t comprehend… Would rather clean toilets than read…

15 Grades K-2, Symptoms Trouble segmenting and blending sounds
Poor letter-sound recall Poor application of phonics Inconsistent memory for words & lists Mispronouncing words, not connecting with word meanings Inability to spell phonetically

16 Grades 3-4, Symptoms Phonic decoding is a struggle
Inconsistent word recognition Poor spelling Over-reliance on context and guessing Trouble learning new words (spoken) Confusion about other symbols

17 Grades 5-6, Symptoms Poor spelling, poor punctuation
Reverts to manuscript from cursive Organization of writing is difficult Decodes laboriously, skips unknown words Avoids reading, vocabulary declines

18 Grades 7-8, Symptoms Slow reading, loses the meaning
Persistent phonological weaknesses, less obvious Poor spelling and writing Confusions of similar words Does better with structured, explicit teaching of language

19 Grades 9+, Symptoms Trouble with foreign language study
Writing and spelling problems persist Reading is slow and labored, can’t sustain Longer writing assignments very difficult Can cope when given extra time, study strategies, and structured language teaching

20 Prognosis of Discrepancy-Defined and “Low Achievers” Francis et al

21 In other words… There is every reason to intervene early with any child “at risk” for reading difficulty. Our goal is to change the prediction of long term outcomes. Children needing intervention should be identified in ways that do not require an IQ measurement.

22 Dyslexia: Brain Activation Differences
Brain of a normal reader (or non-dyslexic) activates at the back Brain of a dyslexic reader activates primarily in the front S. Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia

23 Comprehensive, Integrated Instruction: It is Rocket Science!
Comprehension and Written Expression Reading Fluency Vocabulary Knowledge Phonics, Word Study, and Spelling Phoneme Awareness [foundation in oral language] -Put Reading First, 2001

24 It’s LANGUAGE! Phonological processing – awareness of speech sounds
Orthographic processing – attention to and memory for letters and letter patterns in printed words Morphology – the meaningful parts of words and how they are typically spelled Word meanings (semantic processing) Sentence sense (syntactic processing) Academic discourse – paragraph organization and genre structures, figurative language, word choice and word use in formal contexts, inferential comprehension

25 INSTRUCTION What Can You Do to Help?

26 Begin to Teach All of This
Listening to speech Recognizing speech sounds Letters and letter patterns Blending sounds into words Building background knowledge Comprehending and using spoken language Vocabulary – building word meanings

27 Phoneme Awareness AND Phonics: They Are Not The Same!
Phoneme awareness provides the foundation for learning phonics and for differentiating similar words in speech /b/ /r/ /I/ /t/ b r igh t

28 Reading Aloud to Your Child Builds His Vocabulary

29 A Child with a Large Vocabulary has an Advantage in Learning to Read
He learns the word while listening to the story... “When we flash you a signal you will have to open the door and bail out with the help of emergency rockets.” ...Then your child can more easily sound out the word if it is part of his listening and speaking vocabulary. rock-ets

30 An Achievable Goal Almost every child with reading difficulty will progress yearly in relative standing, as a consequence of early, expert, intensive, collaborative intervention based on an understanding of best practices supported by research.

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