Presentation on theme: "What Do We Mean by “America’s Reading Crisis?”"— Presentation transcript:
1 What Do We Mean by “America’s Reading Crisis?” Louisa Moats, Ed.D.
2 We Used to Think That reading problems were primarily visual That boys and left-handers were at greater riskThat children would grow out of their problemsThat learning to read should be “natural”That intelligence predicted reading abilityThat we couldn’t diagnose reading problems until children failed to learn
3 Research Has Changed Our Views 30 years of research in reading development and learning difficulties at multiple sites by hundreds of researchers from many academic disciplines (educational psychology, cognitive psychology, neurosciences, linguistics, genetics, etc.)Several thousand articles, book chapters, booksFunded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD); United States Department of Education (USDOE); universities and private foundations
4 What Research? National Reading Panel (2000) National Research Council (Snow, Burns, and Griffin, 1998)American Psychological Society (Rayner, Foorman, et al., 2001)Learning First Alliance (1998, 2000)American Speech-Language Hearing Association (2001)National Association for the Education of Young Children
5 Research Findings (NICHD) Boys and girls are equally likely to fall behind in reading.About 40% of all children (white, black, all SES levels) are at risk for problems, depending on the quality of instructionWhen instruction is optimal, we can help all but about 5% by the end of first grade get the basics of reading
6 How Many People Have Reading Difficulties? 17 % of children have reading disabilities40% of all children are “at risk”70% of poor, Black and Hispanic children may be “below basic”According to the National Institutes of Health (NICHD Branch)
7 What causes reading difficulties? Not just “being poor”I.Q.Not simply “low IQ”Not simply because parents didn’t read enough
8 Which of these is most important? Knowledge of the worldBeing read a story every dayKnowing the letter namesHaving good eyesightA good vocabularyHaving an intact familyAwareness of speech soundsOverall maturityRight handedness
9 Which of these is most important? Knowledge of the worldBeing read a story every dayKnowing the letter namesHaving good eyesightA good vocabularyHaving an intact familyAwareness of speech soundsOverall maturityRight handedness
11 IQ Tests Are Irrelevant to Identifying Reading Problems Reading Difficulty GroupsIQ- ConsistentAge Adjusted Standardized Score10.5IQ-Discrepant-0.5-1-1.5Problem SolvingConceptPhonologicalRapid NamingVocabularyPaired AssociateVisual MotorFormationAwarenessLearningMoats
12 Children Don’t Catch Up… Once children fall behind, they are likely to stay behind and the gap is likely to widenC. Juel, 1994 (Harvard Graduate School of Education)J. Torgesen, K. Stanovich, F. Vellutino (NICHD)A. Biemiller (Toronto)R. Good, E. Kame’enui, D. Simmons (U. of Oregon)S. Shaywitz and J. Fletcher (Connecticut Longitudinal Study)
13 Growth Rate Toward Reading Achievement Is Established Early Moats
14 The Natural History of Reading Difficulty Trouble with speech sounds (K)Trouble learning the alphabetic code (1st)Slow, laborious reading (2nd, 3rd)Little practice, limited reading (3rd, 4th)Stagnant vocabulary (4th +)Can’t comprehend…Would rather clean toilets than read…
15 Grades K-2, Symptoms Trouble segmenting and blending sounds Poor letter-sound recallPoor application of phonicsInconsistent memory for words & listsMispronouncing words, not connecting with word meaningsInability to spell phonetically
16 Grades 3-4, Symptoms Phonic decoding is a struggle Inconsistent word recognitionPoor spellingOver-reliance on context and guessingTrouble learning new words (spoken)Confusion about other symbols
17 Grades 5-6, Symptoms Poor spelling, poor punctuation Reverts to manuscript from cursiveOrganization of writing is difficultDecodes laboriously, skips unknown wordsAvoids reading, vocabulary declines
18 Grades 7-8, Symptoms Slow reading, loses the meaning Persistent phonological weaknesses, less obviousPoor spelling and writingConfusions of similar wordsDoes better with structured, explicit teaching of language
19 Grades 9+, Symptoms Trouble with foreign language study Writing and spelling problems persistReading is slow and labored, can’t sustainLonger writing assignments very difficultCan cope when given extra time, study strategies, and structured language teaching
20 Prognosis of Discrepancy-Defined and “Low Achievers” Francis et al Moats
21 In other words…There is every reason to intervene early with any child “at risk” for reading difficulty.Our goal is to change the prediction of long term outcomes.Children needing intervention should be identified in ways that do not require an IQ measurement.
22 Dyslexia: Brain Activation Differences Brain of a normal reader (or non-dyslexic) activates at the backBrain of a dyslexic reader activates primarily in the frontS. Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia
23 Comprehensive, Integrated Instruction: It is Rocket Science! Comprehension and Written ExpressionReading FluencyVocabulary KnowledgePhonics, Word Study, and SpellingPhoneme Awareness[foundation in oral language]-Put Reading First, 2001
24 It’s LANGUAGE! Phonological processing – awareness of speech sounds Orthographic processing – attention to and memory for letters and letter patterns in printed wordsMorphology – the meaningful parts of words and how they are typically spelledWord meanings (semantic processing)Sentence sense (syntactic processing)Academic discourse – paragraph organization and genre structures, figurative language, word choice and word use in formal contexts, inferential comprehension
26 Begin to Teach All of This Listening to speechRecognizing speech soundsLetters and letter patternsBlending sounds into wordsBuilding background knowledgeComprehending and using spoken languageVocabulary – building word meanings
27 Phoneme Awareness AND Phonics: They Are Not The Same! Phoneme awareness provides the foundation for learning phonics and for differentiating similar words in speech/b/ /r/ /I/ /t/b r igh t
28 Reading Aloud to Your Child Builds His Vocabulary
29 A Child with a Large Vocabulary has an Advantage in Learning to Read He learns the word while listening to the story...“When we flash you a signal you will have to open the door and bail out with the help of emergency rockets.”...Then your child can more easily sound out the word if it is part of his listening and speaking vocabulary.rock-ets
30 An Achievable GoalAlmost every child with reading difficulty will progress yearly in relative standing, as a consequence of early, expert, intensive, collaborative intervention based on an understanding of best practices supported by research.
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