Presentation on theme: "Developed by Becky Smith, Debbie Stanley, and David Jackson"— Presentation transcript:
1Developed by Becky Smith, Debbie Stanley, and David Jackson Improving FluencyCitrus:Literacy, Learners, & LeadersDeveloped by Becky Smith, Debbie Stanley, and David JacksonFluency is crucial to reading success, yet in 1983 in The Reading Teacher Allington described fluency as the most neglected reading skill. One of the best ways to improve fluency is to model fluent reading. That’s why we started this session by reading aloud. It needs to be a daily occurrence.
2Literacy is… using multiple symbol systems Listening Viewing Speaking ThinkingReadingWritingExpressingusing multiple symbol systemsLiteracy involves all of these. These need to be addressed in every class every day.
3Daily Non-negotiables Maintain a print-rich classroomUse the seven processes of literacyRead to and with studentsTeach,model,practice strategies of expert readers and writersProvide independent reading with accountabilityInstruct phonics & phonemic awareness for K-1, and for others who have reached mastery.These daily non-negotiables are a county-wide emphasis. You’ll see a similar slide in all of the county’s literacy training modules. We need to plan our lessons so that all of these happen in every class every day.
4What is fluency? Reading with … PaceAccuracyProsodyPace, accuracy, and expression help readers achieve automaticity. Automaticity in decoding allows readers to concentrate on meaning. Without automaticity, students use most of their mental energy decoding the text, leaving little for comprehending it.…resulting in automaticity
5Why is fluency important? Fluent readers have better comprehensionFluent readers perform better in content areasFluent readers score higher on FCATFluent readers read for funBecause reading is easy for fluent readers, they are the ones who read, practice and get better. The reading gap widens between fluent and non-fluent readers as they get older.
6Citrus County Schools, Florida FCRR StudyThe Florida Center for Reading Research recently conducted a study of the FCAT to answer several important questions:What are the reading, language, and cognitive abilities that are most important in explaining individual differences in performance on the FCAT at 3rd, 7th, and 10th grades?The next two slides are from that study.What kinds of skills and knowledge are particularly low in students who struggle on the FCAT?Citrus County Schools, Florida
77th Grade 51% 43% 22% 5% 60 50 Percent of variance accounted for 40 30 Fluency60Verbal AbilitiesNon VerbalMemory50407th Grade51%Percent of variance accounted for3043%20FCRR concluded that fluency and verbal abilities (verbal knowledge & reasoning) are equally important factors in determining variance in FCAT scores among 7th graders.22%105%
8What skills are particularly deficient in level 1 and level 2 readers at 7th grade? Skill/abilityFCAT Performance LevelWPM on FCATFluency percentile7th 25th 45th 82th thPhonemic decoding27th 53rd 53rd 74th thThe study specifically looked for skills that were particularly low in kids who struggle on the FCAT. Look at fluency. Notice Level 1’s are very low in fluency; Level 5’s are very high.Verbal knowledge/ reasoning34th 45th th 88th rdSAT9 percentile31st 51st 68th 86th 94th
9Fluency and comprehension Shinn (1992), reviewing twenty-eight studies, found a median correlation of 0.82Fuchs (1988), focusing on middle school, found a correlation of 0.91Currently, fluency (WCPM) is our best predictor of how a student will perform on FCAT.
10Citrus County Schools, Florida FCRR suggests that 80% of the students at Low Risk (green) will score a 3 or higher on the FCAT. High Risk (red) kids often can’t finish the FCAT, and if they stay High Risk through middle school, will probably never be competent readers. On the other hand, in 2000 Mercer, et al., found that many struggling older readers are capable of rapid progress if given instruction that includes oral reading fluency practice and progress monitoring.Citrus County Schools, Florida
11How do we assess fluency? DIBELSElementaryFORFMiddle SchoolHigh SchoolYour reading coach will have much useful information on your struggling readers.
12Basic Procedures for WCPM Provide two copies of a grade-level textMark the place ] after one minuteMark errors / (skipped words, mispronunciations, substitutions, reversed order, struggles lasting three seconds)*Count the Words Correct Per Minute*Don’t count self-corrections, insertions, or correct repetitions as errors.Determining a student’s fluency is easy.
13How do we improve fluency? Teacher modelPartner readingReader’s theaterStudent presentationsListening & recordingChoral readingEcho readingMatch student with textChart results to motivateThe only way to improve fluency is to practice. Here are a few of many effective ways to improve fluency. These are appropriate for any subject area.(Two handouts:Techniques for Improving Fluency and Multidimensional Fluency Scale)Be prepared to define each of these practices and give an example, if necessary.
14Partner Reading Practice Pair studentsProvide appropriate textRead for one minuteChart resultsLet’s practice one simple strategy. One way to organize partner reading practice is to pair a stronger reader with a weaker reader, and then match the text to the weaker reader. One partner reads for one minute while the other partner notes mistakes. At the end of a minute, they calculate and chart WCPM. Then they reverse roles. Often this is done until each partner has read the passage two or even three times, charting the best score.(Three handouts: Basic Procedures for WCPM, Growth Hormone, and Blank WCPM Graph)
15Matching student with text Independent > 94% accuracyInstructional 90-94%Frustration < 90%Lexile match / Fountas & PinnellBy listening to a student read and asking a question or two about what he has read, you can determine whether or not a book is appropriate. Running records are an excellent way to do this. Your reading coach can also help you match student with text. Finding appropriate material can be time consuming, but it is important. If kids are to improve their fluency, they need to practice with text they can handle.(Two handouts: Calculate the Percent Accuracy Level and A Closer Look at Reading Levels)