Presentation on theme: "Effective Intervention Using Data from the Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI-5) Developed by the authors of the Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI) -5,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Effective Intervention Using Data from the Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI-5) Developed by the authors of the Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI) -5, Lauren Leslie and JoAnne Schudt Caldwell, this training will help teachers and literacy coaches learn how to administer the QRI-5 and how to use that data to plan for effective reading intervention. Participants will receive both the QRI-5 and Intervention Strategies to Follow Informal Reading Inventory Assessment: So what do I do now? by Caldwell and Leslie.
2 Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI-5) The QRI-5 has long led the field in offering teachers a reliable and easy-to-use informal assessment instrument.It is the only inventory on the market that has done extensive piloting and can provide reliability and validity evidence of its use.It has been reviewed as the inventory that provides the most thorough and useful diagnostic assessment of reading difficulties**Time to Act: An Agenda for Advancing Adolescent Literacy for College and Career Success, Final Report from Carnegie Corporation of New York’s Council on Advancing Adolescent Literacy (2010).Lauren Leslieand JoAnne Caldwell
3 What Educators Are Saying… “I have used previous versions of the QRI in my own teaching and research and found it a superb informal reading inventory...this inventory has allowed me to help teachers do their best with typically developing and striving readers.”- Karen Jorgensen, University of Kansas
4 What is an Informal Reading Inventory? An Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) is an individually administered survey designed to help you determine a student's reading instructional needs.An IRI will help assess a student's strengths and needs in these areas:word recognitionword meaningreading strategiescomprehensionThe QRI is a Qualitative Reading Inventory since it provides useful diagnostic assessment of reading difficulties.
5 Using the QRI to Measure Progress Fall: Full administration (use easiest story at each level). Winter: Partial administration (use next hardest story). Spring: Use hardest story and administer whichever parts track progress toward the goals that were set.The QRI has been used to assess Response to Intervention as well as progress across a year of instruction. It is important that the easiest passage in a genre within a grade level be used in the fall and the hardest one be used in the Spring. For example, given that a district assesses its students’ progress three times per year, the order of narrative texts given across a year in 4th grade would be Johnny Appleseed, Amelia Earhart, and Tomie dePaola. Information about the order of passages can be found in Table (pages 480–481) in the QRI-5 textbook.5
6 Current Professional Development Services Qualitative Reading Inventory: Effective Intervention Strategies Using Data from the QRI-52-day traininghelps educators effectively assess reading abilitiesHelps educators use the results to plan effective interventionsFollow Up to Training: Coaching and Modelingjob-embedded coaching and modeling
7 When to Position Effective Intervention Strategies Using Data from the QRI-5 Districts want to:Improve student achievement in literacyScreen and diagnose struggling readersHelp students struggling with phonics, spelling and vocabularyDistricts have purchased:WTW Texts or professional developmentIntervention programsSIOP and want to improve literacy skills
8 Effective Intervention Using Data from the Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI-5) Participants will be able to:Administer, score and interpret the results from the QRI-5Identify instructional reading levels and plan effective instruction using the results of the QRI-5Understand the components of effective reading interventionSelect instructional strategies to plan lessons that meet student needsUnderstand how to use data to inform instructional interventionsThis slide starts discussion of the training
9 Purposes of QRI-5To identify a student’s reading instructional level (usually in narrative text).To analyze the student’s strengths in reading and find areas that need explicit instruction.There are two basic purposes for administering the QRI-5:1- To identify the level of material that the student can read with at least 90% accuracy and 70% comprehension.2- To identify the student’s strengths and areas in which explicit instruction is needed.9
10 Why teach students from their instructional level? Criteria for instructional level90% oral reading accuracy67% + comprehension assessed by questionsThe answer is that we teach at students’ instructional levels because it is assumed that students will make the most progress in reading if they are taught at this level. It is the level where teachers introduce unknown words (those 5% that students are unlikely to know) before students read the text. If students read on their own, then an Independent level should be identified. That is a level at which the students read with 98% accuracy and 90% comprehension.10
11 Word ListsProvide basic information about word identification skills andHelp identify where to start the story reading.ScoreWords read automaticallyWords read correctly without time considerations.
12 Text ReadingAssess prior knowledge using concepts.Ask the student to predict what the story will be about.Mark miscuesAsk student to retell story
13 Miscue AnalysisDetermine the reasons for miscues in the text.Determine if miscues change the meaning of a passageDetermine if student self-corrects
14 A significant and natural component of good reading RetellingA significant and natural component of good readingMuch sharing of reading involves a retelling componentRetelling is also internal as a form of summary or reviewSometimes a student recalls a lot of the text verbatim and answers explicit questions correctly, but cannot answer implicit questions correctly, suggesting a focus on just what the text says without connecting that to the reader’s prior knowledge to make inferences.
15 Comprehension Questions Explicit – answer is stated in text in same words.Implicit- answer must be inferred from text material.
16 Using the QRI to Diagnose Reading Issues What can you find out about students?They don’t have phonological knowledgeThey don’t know letter-sound connectionsThey don’t know enough sight wordsThey don’t generalize from words that they know to words that are spelled similarly.They read very slowlyThey don’t know basic concepts necessary to understand the textThey have trouble making meaning using the language from the textAlthough the QRI-5 does not assess phonological knowledge, it can be used to assess students’ knowledge of letter-sound relationships, sight words and their ability to generalize from what they know to decoding new words. Basic consonant sound knowledge can be assessed by examining the mistakes that students make on the word lists. For example, if the words are ran , read, and run and the student reads them as, pan, seed, and sun it may be that the student does not know the sound for the letter “r”. Sight words are assessed through the student’s reading of the words on the word lists. If the student reads the word within one second, we conclude that the word was known automatically, or by sight. Finally, new to the QRI-5 is a test of reading by analogy, or whether a student can take a common word that they know, e.g., can and read an less common word such as, fan. Words with common phonograms are included in the pre-primer 1, pre-primer 2, primer, and first grade lists. If the student reads any of the common words accurately, the examiner should ask him or her to read the less common word with the same spelling pattern. If the child can do this (especially if it takes more than one second to do so) we can infer that the student is reading by analogy.There are many reasons why a student might not be able to understand a text. An important feature of the QRI-5 is that it can help to identify the factors that might be affecting the student’s comprehension. For example, because the QRI contains both narrative and expository texts the user can contrast student’s performance on these genre.16
17 Effective Intervention Programs Provide a consistent lesson plan structureProvide time for word studyFocus on fluency developmentEmphasize reading and writing for meaningKeep the groups as small as possibleTeach students the strategies that good readers useNote: Training helps to set up an effective Intervention and goes through each of these points.Participants create a lesson plan during this training to put learning into practice.Use independent and instructional level text for intervention instruction. You can also teach comprehension strategies through read-alouds. Engaging in shared oral reading and repeated oral reading can make difficult text more manageable.Word study can involve a variety of activities depending upon the age, level and needs of the reader. It can include phonological awareness activities; letter/sound/word manipulation; word building, word sorts; and a variety of vocabulary activities. Note that we will be focusing on these later on.Fluency development can involve repeated reading, shared reading, echo reading, performance reading, etc. We will address these in more detail later in the training.Relate group size to Tier Two and Tier Three instruction. Tier Two instruction in RTI will probably involve a small group format while Tier Three will most likely be a one–on-one format. While students will have some areas of need, it is still important to provide balanced instruction that includes word study, fluency and reading for meaning in both Tiers. We must maintain and increase the areas of strength while focusing on areas of need. For example, just stressing aspects of word identification without addressing comprehension can lead to student perception that reading is “saying words.” Just focusing on fluency can suggest that reading is saying words fast. Each intervention session should pay attention to word study, fluency and comprehension although the amount of time designated to each component may vary according to student or group need.17
18 1. Provide a Consistent Lesson Plan Structure This workshop will help educators:Plan lessons including all of the following components: word study, fluency, and comprehension.Plan time to teach each component, depending on the needs of the student/s.Plan activities related to each component, which can vary according to the age and level of the student/s.Each day use the same category of activities in the same sequence and for the same amount of time. Provide a balanced assortment of activities that includes word identification, fluency, and comprehension. A consistent structure makes lesson planning easier. Individualization occurs within the structure. Note that we will be paying more attention to this later in the training.A consistent lesson structure makes lesson planning easier. Instead of focusing on how to fill the time, you set up the overall structure. How long will the lesson last? How will you divide the lesson into the three activities? Which ones will receive more time? (Refer back to Table 2.1 on page 23 in the Intervention book). Once you have the structure in place, you can focus instead on the activities that are appropriate for each component and for the students. For example, word study can involve rhyming activities, phonics instruction, word sorts, vocabulary development, etc. A consistent structure allows for greater attention to the choice, design and teaching of activities. Individualization occurs within the structure with the activities chosen for each component and the time allotted to each. Some students may need more time for word study; others may need an emphasis on fluency. However, all receive a balanced structure that includes word study, fluency and comprehension . Having a set structure also helps with classroom management. Students know what to expect and there is less off-task behavior as they move from one component to another. A consistent structure also provides a more manageable structure for volunteer tutors.18
19 2. Provide time for word study Difficulties are suggested by the number of words read in the word lists and the number of miscues in reading text.This workshop will help educators:Learn the instructional frameworks for phonics developmentStress spelling patternsDevelop and foster independent and automatic word recognition skills.Some students may need more time for word study; others may need an emphasis on fluency. However, all receive a balanced structure that includes word study, fluency and comprehension . Having a set structure also helps with classroom management. Students know what to expect and there is less off-task behavior as they move from one component to another. A consistent structure also provides a more manageable structure for volunteer tutors.19
20 3. Focus on fluency development Difficulties are suggested by the number of words read per minute.This workshop will help educators:Link fluency practice to meaning.Provide guidance and feedback.Encourage wide reading.Foster independent reading at an independent reading level.Avoid unpracticed reading.Difficulty with fluency is suggested by WPM or CWPM well below ranges quoted in QRI 5. WPM refers to the number of words read per minute. CWPM refers to the number of correct words read per minute. Both are determined by timing a child’s oral reading and using the formulas present in QRI 5. Explain that WPM and CWPM scores are extremely variable across children and across passages. A child may be quite fluent in narrative familiar text and very non-fluent in unfamiliar or expository text. Fluency involves more than speed; it also includes expression. Lack of fluency can suggest difficulty with decoding or lack of sight vocabulary.Avoid drill activities on isolated words, which may foster the belief that reading is saying words, not comprehending. Model fluent reading and help students improve their fluency through different instructional strategies. Remember that fluency involves expression as well as speed. Provide opportunities for wide reading and have appropriate materials on hand for all students. Such materials can include magazines and nonfiction text. Avoid unpracticed “round robin” reading which may result in embarrassment for some children.20
21 4. Emphasize reading and writing for meaning Difficulties are suggested by the following QRI 5 patterns:Comprehension level below chronological grade level as determined by answers to questionsDiscrepancy between answers to explicit and implicit questions at instructional levelDiscrepancy between performance on narrative and expository passages.Sparse disjointed retellingIneffective think-aloud statements.Define severe reading difficulty as the gap between instructional level and chronological grade level with instructional level based upon student’s best performance. A severe problem in indicated as follows:Grades 1, 2, 3 : One or more yearsGrades 4, 5, 6: Two or more yearsGrades 7+: Three or more years
22 4. Emphasize reading and writing for meaning This workshop will help educators teach students to understand:The meanings of words in contextEnglish syntaxContent being readText structure being readComprehension Monitoring strategiesAnswering QuestionsInteracting with TextUse connected text and text that is engaging and interesting. Read for authentic purposes: to enjoy and to learn. Involve the students in discussion and sharing. Pursue what Allington calls “thoughtful literacy.” Avoid “skill and drill.”Reading for meaning can focus on text structure, self-questioning, specific strategy instruction, etc.
23 5. Keep the groups as small as possible This workshop will help educators:Use QRI data to group studentsIdentify students with similar reading needsPlace students are in small groups with effective, differentiated instructionMonitor Progress using QRIRelate to group size to Tier Two and Tier Three instruction. Tier Two instruction in RtI will probably involve a small group format while Tier Three will most likely be a one–on-one format. While students will have some areas of need, it is still important to provide balanced instruction that includes word study, fluency and reading for meaning in both Tiers. We must maintain and increase the areas of strength while focusing on areas of need. For example, just stressing aspects of word identification without addressing comprehension can led to student perception that reading is “saying words.” Just focusing on fluency can suggest that reading is saying words fast. Each intervention session should pay attention to word study, fluency and comprehension although the amount of time designated to each component may vary according to student or group need.
24 6. Teach students the strategies that good readers use This workshop will help educators provide instruction in the strategies of good readers, such as:Using letter and sound patternsReading fluentlyLearning new word meaningsConnecting prior knowledgeRecognizing the structure of the textSummarizingMaking inferences and predictionsAsking questions and reading to find answersSynthesizing information from different sourcesRecognizing author’s purposeMonitoring comprehensionEmphasize the good reader behaviors. Discuss the differences between the old scope and sequence charts and cognitive behaviors. Explain that there is overlap to these good reader behaviors; they are not discrete skills.
25 Current Professional Development Services Qualitative Reading Inventory: Effective Intervention Strategies Using Data from the QRI-52-day traininghelps educators effectively assess reading abilitiesHelps educators use the results to plan effective interventionsFollow Up to Training: Coaching and Modelingjob-embedded coaching and modelingReview
26 Participants will be able to: Effective Intervention Using Data from the Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI-5)Participants will be able to:Administer, score and interpret the results from the QRI-5Identify instructional reading levels and plan effective instruction using the results of the QRI-5Understand the components of effective reading interventionSelect instructional strategies to plan lessons that meet student needsUnderstand how to use data to inform instructional interventionsReview
27 Questions? Cindy Martin Cindy.Martin@Pearson.com Kathryn Boice