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The Scientific Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "The Scientific Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Scientific Revolution
Early 16th Century science was based on Aristotle. Motionless earth fixed in the center of the universe Surrounded by celestial spheres that moved in a perfect circle

2 The Great Chain of Being

3 Francis Bacon The Scientific Method – A new way to do science

4 Bacon and Descartes' (Bacon = inductive, Descartes = deductive)
Bacon – Formalizes the empirical method Descartes' – proves correspondence between geometry and algebra.. Creates analytic geometry. Dualism – Mind and matter or the physical and the spiritual

5 William Harvey Medicine – Circular flow of blood from the heart

6 Microscope

7 The Telescope

8 Copernicus 1473-1543 Clergyman
The universe revolved around a fixed sun Did not publish works until the year of his death

9 Change of World View The immense size of the universe
The earthly world was similar to the heavens… earth is just another planet Where was the kingdom of heaven? Did not Joshua bid the sun to stand still and not the earth 1616 The Catholic Church declares Copernican theory as false

10 Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo
Brahe collected data Kepler’s 3laws of planetary motions Elliptical Did not move at a uniform speed The time it takes to orbit is directly related to the distance from the sun

11 Galileo 1564 - 1642 Experimental method Law of inertia
Changed a telescope from Holland and pointed it toward the heavens Observed that the moon, is in many ways, like the surface of the earth. Western civilization turns the corner

12 Making sense of the universe
Nature and nature's light were hidden by night/ Then God said "Let Newton be!" and then there was light" – Alexander Pope

13 Newton “” Law of Universal Gravitation – attraction to other bodies… precise and mathematical

14 The Solar System

15 Causes of the Scientific Revolution
The Medieval Universities – Application of scientific reasoning - and math from the crusades The Renaissance – Humanism search of knowledge through antiquity improves math The need for navigation tools - longitude

16 Science and the Church Were Protestants more open to science?
Where there was a strong central religious authority religious dogma ruled Italy Holland England

17 Consequences of the Scientific Revolution
Gave rise to international scientific communities. New way of obtaining more knowledge More critical Refused to base its conclusions on established sources But… little evidence that it was due to economic factors. It was first and foremost an intellectual movement

18 However – revolutions are coming
Science and industrial arts exalted Religion and morality are questioned Knowledge was important because it made possible social, economic and political PROGRESS.

19 Causes for uncertainty
Scholars were cautious – as institutions could condemn Previous wars of religion – Thirty Years War. A strong state demanded religious conformity Skepticism – Bayle – nothing could ever be known beyond doubt

20 Skepticism- as the world shrinks
Europeans cut their beards and grew their hair long. Turks shaved their heads and grew their beards long. John Locke – rejects Descarte – with his tabula rasa Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding as the equal to Newton’s Principia

21 The Enlightenment Natural science should be used understand all aspects of life… rationalism Scientific method could be used to discover laws about human society… The birth of the social sciences. Progress… Human being could create better societies

22 The French Philosophes
Were they philosophers? More like early sociologists Why France French was the language of the educated “Scientists” were not as suppressed as other parts of the world What were their concerns Determined to reach the all of Europe’s educated elite… The Public…not “the blind and noisy multitude” Careful not to directly attack powerful institutions they wrote plays, books and satires that were not distributed widely or had had double meanings

23 Reformers More than Revolutionaries
Montesquieu – separation of powers Francois Marie Arouet – Voltaire – satire and religious toleration but never social or economic equality. Diderot - encyclopedia Madame du Chatelet Deists

24 The Later Enlightenment-1770
D’Holbach – Humans are machines – free will is a myth – B.F. Skinner “Beyond Freedom and Dignity … positive and negative reinforcement (Late 60’s USA) David Hume( ) The human mind is simply a bundle of impressions Rousseau – The noble savage… Institutions that were created for progress actually corrupt

25 More Rousseau… “The Social Contract”
The General Will – reflects the common interest of the people Popular Sovereignty More on the general will… dictators and democrats have used this to usurp power

26 Urban Culture and Public Opinion
Books sales explode Less religious and more books on the arts and sciences (1780) Smuggled books evaded censorship EUROPE WAS BECOMING MORE SECULAR Scandals Pornography Women using sex to conquer weak men Germany permitted freedom of the press

27 The Salons – Free From Censorship
Women brought important men to discuss the latest literature, science and philosophy Elite women exercised influence in the arts Rococo Greater education for women Madam Geoffrin

28 The Enlightenment and Absolutism
Benevolent absolutism was the best opportunity to improve society. The people are children that need parental guidance

29 Prussia, Russia, and Austria
Frederick II (The Great) (r ) Daddy was the “solider king” Sonny tries to run away with his best friend and Daddy cuts his friend’s head off But… in 1740 he inherits the throne and invades Silesia The War of Austrian Succession

30 The War of Austrian Succession
Prussia adds 6 mil to its population Austria would not let Silesia go peacefully Maria Theresa allied herself with France and Russia in the Seven Years War (In America it was called the French Indian War ( )

31 Frederick The Great Holds on But Gives in
Peter III 1762 calls off the attack The Seven Years War tempers his policies Religious and academic toleration Improved schools Improved agriculture and industry “Only the first servant of the state” Did not free his own serfs Kept the right to expel the Jews whenever he wanted

32 Catherine the Great of Russia (r.1762-1796)
German Peter the Great abolished hereditary succession Catherine has Peter III killed for withdrawing from the Seven Years War

33 Catherine had drunk deeply at the enlightenment well
Three main goals Bring sophisticated western culture to Russia Bring in western architecture Corresponds with Voltaire Domestic reform Pugachev’s revolt 1773 Peasants are dangerous 1775- nobles have absolute control of their serfs

34 Goals… continued Territorial Expansion Successful Crimea Caucasus
Poland , divided among Austria, Russia, and Prussia Kept Russian noble happy

35 Austrian Habsburgs Maria Theresa Limited power of the papacy
Strengthened central bureaucracy Improve the life of agricultural workers

36 Habsburgs…Continued Joseph II…Coregent to 1780 and ruled to 1790
Controlled the Catholic Church more closely Religious toleration for Protestants and Jews Abolishes serfdom from (led to turmoil from the nobles… cancelled in 1791)

37 Absolutism is France King was still the best source of reform
Louis XIV dies Nobles under the Duke of Orleans make a comeback Restored the high courts of France – the Parlements… They maintained the right to evaluate decrees before they became law What once were middle-class judges were now well entrenched in the aristocracy

38 The Parlement of Paris 5% tax on everyone (because of the War of Austrian Succession) was dropped. Seven Years War King tries to impose emergency taxes Parlement of Paris rejects the tax “ to limit the king’s power and protect liberty.” No taxes without the consent of The Parlement of Paris

39 Mapeou

40 Louis XV Reacts Mapeou establishes a new more docile Parlement
The king of his royal aura Pornography Scandal mongering The commoners of Paris were beginning to stir Royal power was strong enough to ride over the opposition but the king dies in 1774 Louis XVI “What I should like most is to be loved.”

41 Overall influence of the Enlightenment
France unlike the its eastern neighbors saw a decline in absolutism The Enlightened Monarchs They did spread cultural values of the Enlightenment… especially Frederick and Catherine Secular Education and interest in the arts Reforms that would strengthen the state and compete militarily…

42 Absolutists continued
Put state building reforms in a broader perspective How humane laws could make the population more productive Tolerating religious minorities Simplifying legal codes and promoting practical education

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