Nicolaus Copernicus Studied planetary movements Reasoned that the stars and planets revolve around the sun Idea became known as the heliocentric theory
Johannes Kepler Brilliant mathematician Used the data of Tycho Brahe to prove the accuracy of Copernicus’s ideas about the motion of the planets
Galileo Galilei Scientific discoveries Proposed the heliocentric theory Sun-centered theory Law of the pendulum Falling objects accelerate at fixed predictable rates
Francis Bacon Helped develop the scientific method
Isaac Newton Great mathematician and physicist Brought together theories and discoveries of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo under a single theory of motion called the law of universal gravitation All physical objects are affected equally by the same forces
Zacharias Janssen Invented the microscope Made the Anton van Leeuwenhoek’s discoveries possible
Scientific Revolution Caused improvements in medicine and scientific instruments
What was so revolutionary about the Scientific Revolution?
Thomas Hobbes Contradicted the ideas of the U.S. constitution Social contract Explained the idea of direct democracy
John Locke Political thinker Felt people are reasonable Supported self-government Argued that the purpose of government is to protect people’s natural rights If government can’t protect natural rights- people can overthrow it
What influence did the ideas of John Locke have on the Declaration of Independence?
Philosophes Believed in progress for all of society Used reason to address social issues
Voltaire Fought for tolerance, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech Got him into trouble with the clergy, aristocracy, and the government of France
Montesquieu Devoted to the study of political liberty Wrote On the Spirit of the Laws Proposed that separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of a government Influenced the Constitution How? Separation of powers
Rousseau Had many disagreements with other philosophers Many philosophers believed that reason, science, and art improved the lives of all people He argued that civilization corrupts people’s natural goodness
Cesare Beccaria Greatly influenced criminal law reformers Argued against the use of torture and other common abuses of justice
Mary Wollstonecraft Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women Presented an argument for the education of women Declared that women should have the same political rights as men
What were some of the most important effects of the Enlightenment?
Fredrick II (Great) Joseph II Catherine the Great
Fredrick II (Great) Ruled Prussia as an enlightenment despot Supported freedom of worship
Joseph II Ruled Austria as an enlightened despot Abolished serfdom
Catherine the Great Ruled Russia as an enlightened despot Believed a monarch should have absolute authority* Gave nobility absolute power over the serfs Brutally crushed a massive uprising of serfs
Why do you think Catherine the Great was attracted to the ideas of the philosophes?