Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Enlightenment and Revolution

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment and Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 Enlightenment and Revolution
Chapter 22

2 The Scientific Revolution
Section 1

3 Nicolaus Copernicus Johannes Kepler Galileo Galilei Francis Bacon Isaac Newton Zacharias Janssen Scientific Revolution

4 Causes of the Scientific Revolution

5 Nicolaus Copernicus Studied planetary movements
Reasoned that the stars and planets revolve around the sun Idea became known as the heliocentric theory Didn’t publish findings until his death because of fear of ridicule

6 Johannes Kepler Brilliant mathematician
Used the data of Tycho Brahe to prove the accuracy of Copernicus’s ideas about the motion of the planets

7 Galileo Galilei Scientific discoveries
Proposed the heliocentric theory Sun-centered theory Law of the pendulum Falling objects accelerate at fixed predictable rates Spent the last years of his life under house arrest because his scientific findings didn’t go along with the church authorities’ interpretation of the Bible

8 Francis Bacon Helped develop the scientific method

9 Isaac Newton Great mathematician and physicist
Brought together theories and discoveries of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo under a single theory of motion called the law of universal gravitation All physical objects are affected equally by the same forces

10 Zacharias Janssen Invented the microscope
Made the Anton van Leeuwenhoek’s discoveries possible

11 Scientific Revolution
Caused improvements in medicine and scientific instruments

12 What was so revolutionary about the Scientific Revolution?

13 The Enlightenment in Europe
Section 2

14 Hobbes Locke Philosophes Voltaire Montesquieu Rousseau Cesare Beccaria Mary Wollstonecraft

15 Thomas Hobbes Contradicted the ideas of the U.S. constitution
Social contract Explained the idea of direct democracy

16 John Locke Political thinker Felt people are reasonable
Supported self-government Argued that the purpose of government is to protect people’s natural rights If government can’t protect natural rights- people can overthrow it

17 What influence did the ideas of John Locke have on the Declaration of Independence?

18 Philosophes Believed in progress for all of society
Used reason to address social issues

19 Voltaire Fought for tolerance, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech Got him into trouble with the clergy, aristocracy, and the government of France

20 Montesquieu Devoted to the study of political liberty
Wrote On the Spirit of the Laws Proposed that separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of a government Influenced the Constitution How? Separation of powers

21 Rousseau Had many disagreements with other philosophers
Many philosophers believed that reason, science, and art improved the lives of all people He argued that civilization corrupts people’s natural goodness

22 Cesare Beccaria Greatly influenced criminal law reformers
Argued against the use of torture and other common abuses of justice

23 Mary Wollstonecraft Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women
Presented an argument for the education of women Declared that women should have the same political rights as men

24 What were some of the most important effects of the Enlightenment?

25 The Enlightenment Spreads
Chapter 22.3

26 Fredrick II (Great) Joseph II Catherine the Great

27 Fredrick II (Great) Ruled Prussia as an enlightenment despot
Supported freedom of worship

28 Joseph II Ruled Austria as an enlightened despot Abolished serfdom

29 Catherine the Great Ruled Russia as an enlightened despot
Believed a monarch should have absolute authority* Gave nobility absolute power over the serfs Brutally crushed a massive uprising of serfs * Just like Hobbes

30 Why do you think Catherine the Great was attracted to the ideas of the philosophes?

31 The American Revolution
Section 4 The British colonies in North America grew in population and wealth during the 1700s. Population went from about 250,000 in 1700 to 2,150,000 in Economically, they prospered on trade with the nations of Europe. The 13 colonies also had a kind of self-government. People in the colonies began to see themselves less and less as British subjects. Still, Parliament passed laws that governed the colonies. One set of laws banned trade with any nation other than Britain. The high cost of the French and Indian War led Parliament to pass laws that put taxes on the colonists. The colonists became very angry. They had never before paid taxes directly to the British government. They said that the taxes violated their rights. Since Parliament had no members from the colonies, they said, Parliament had no right to tax them.

32 Thomas Jefferson Constitutional Convention Articles of Confederation Congress Bill of Rights Scientific Revolution

33 Thomas Jefferson Wrote the Declaration of Independence
The colonists met the first tax, passed in 1765, with a boycott of British goods. Their refusal to buy British products was very effective. It forced Parliament to repeal the law. Over the next decade, the colonists and Britain grew further apart. Some colonists wanted to push the colonies to independence. They took actions that caused Britain to act harshly. Eventually, the conflict led to war. Representatives of the colonies met in a congress and formed an army. In July 1776, they announced that they were independent of Britain. They issued the Declaration of Independence. It was based on Enlightenment ideas. Thomas Jefferson wrote it. From 1775 to 1781, the colonies and the British fought a war in North America. The colonists had a poorly equipped army, and Britain was one of the most powerful nations in the world. However, in the end, the colonies won their independence. The British people grew tired of the cost of the war and pushed Parliament to agree to a peace. The Americans were also helped greatly by aid from France. In 1783, the two sides signed a treaty. In it, Britain recognized the independent United States of America.

34 Constitutional Convention
Occurred after the American Revolution The 13 states formed a new government under the Article of Confederation. This government was very weak. States held all the power and the central government had little. This proved unworkable. In 1787, American leaders met again. They wrote a new framework of government.

35 Articles of Confederation
Created the first national government of the 13 individual states in North America

36 Congress Created by the Articles of Confederation

37 Bill of Rights Influences Voltaire John Locke Jean Jacques Rousseau
The Constitution of the United States drew on many Enlightenment ideas. It used Montesquieu’s idea of separation of powers into three branches of government. Through a system of checks and balances, each branch was able to prevent other branches from abusing their power. The Constitution also set up a federal system. Under this system, power was divided between national and state governments. The Constitution also used Locke’s idea of putting power in the hands of the people. It used Voltaire’s ideas to protect the right to free speech and freedom of religion. It used Beccaria’s ideas about a fair system of justice.

38 Scientific Revolution
Influenced the American Revolution How? Questioned assumptions that led to challenging ideas about government Many of these rights were ensured in a set of additions to the Constitution called the Bill of Rights. The inclusion of a bill of rights helped win approval for the Constitution.

39 Enlightenment ideas U.S. Constitution Bill of Rights
In what ways did the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights reflect Enlightenment ideas? Be sure to discuss the system of checks and balances and the federal system.

Download ppt "Enlightenment and Revolution"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google