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 Enlightenment and Revolution Chapter 22.  The Scientific Revolution Section 1.

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Presentation on theme: " Enlightenment and Revolution Chapter 22.  The Scientific Revolution Section 1."— Presentation transcript:

1  Enlightenment and Revolution Chapter 22

2  The Scientific Revolution Section 1

3 Nicolaus Copernicus Johannes Kepler Galileo Galilei Francis Bacon Isaac Newton Zacharias Janssen Scientific Revolution

4 Causes of the Scientific Revolution

5 Nicolaus Copernicus  Studied planetary movements  Reasoned that the stars and planets revolve around the sun  Idea became known as the heliocentric theory

6 Johannes Kepler  Brilliant mathematician  Used the data of Tycho Brahe to prove the accuracy of Copernicus’s ideas about the motion of the planets

7 Galileo Galilei  Scientific discoveries  Proposed the heliocentric theory  Sun-centered theory  Law of the pendulum  Falling objects accelerate at fixed predictable rates

8 Francis Bacon  Helped develop the scientific method

9 Isaac Newton  Great mathematician and physicist  Brought together theories and discoveries of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo under a single theory of motion called the law of universal gravitation  All physical objects are affected equally by the same forces

10 Zacharias Janssen  Invented the microscope  Made the Anton van Leeuwenhoek’s discoveries possible

11 Scientific Revolution  Caused improvements in medicine and scientific instruments

12 What was so revolutionary about the Scientific Revolution?

13  The Enlightenment in Europe Section 2

14 Hobbes Locke Philosophes Voltaire Montesquieu Rousseau Cesare Beccaria Mary Wollstonecraft

15 Thomas Hobbes  Contradicted the ideas of the U.S. constitution  Social contract  Explained the idea of direct democracy

16 John Locke  Political thinker  Felt people are reasonable  Supported self-government  Argued that the purpose of government is to protect people’s natural rights  If government can’t protect natural rights- people can overthrow it

17 What influence did the ideas of John Locke have on the Declaration of Independence?

18 Philosophes  Believed in progress for all of society  Used reason to address social issues

19 Voltaire  Fought for tolerance, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech  Got him into trouble with the clergy, aristocracy, and the government of France

20 Montesquieu  Devoted to the study of political liberty  Wrote On the Spirit of the Laws  Proposed that separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of a government  Influenced the Constitution  How?  Separation of powers

21 Rousseau  Had many disagreements with other philosophers  Many philosophers believed that reason, science, and art improved the lives of all people  He argued that civilization corrupts people’s natural goodness

22 Cesare Beccaria  Greatly influenced criminal law reformers  Argued against the use of torture and other common abuses of justice

23 Mary Wollstonecraft  Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women  Presented an argument for the education of women  Declared that women should have the same political rights as men

24 What were some of the most important effects of the Enlightenment?

25  The Enlightenment Spreads Chapter 22.3

26 Fredrick II (Great) Joseph II Catherine the Great

27 Fredrick II (Great)  Ruled Prussia as an enlightenment despot  Supported freedom of worship

28 Joseph II  Ruled Austria as an enlightened despot  Abolished serfdom

29 Catherine the Great  Ruled Russia as an enlightened despot  Believed a monarch should have absolute authority*  Gave nobility absolute power over the serfs  Brutally crushed a massive uprising of serfs

30 Why do you think Catherine the Great was attracted to the ideas of the philosophes?

31  The American Revolution Section 4

32 Thomas Jefferson Constitutional Convention Articles of Confederation Congress Bill of Rights Scientific Revolution

33 Thomas Jefferson  Wrote the Declaration of Independence

34 Constitutional Convention  Occurred after the American Revolution

35 Articles of Confederation  Created the first national government of the 13 individual states in North America

36 Congress  Created by the Articles of Confederation

37 Bill of Rights  Influences  Voltaire  John Locke  Jean Jacques Rousseau

38 Scientific Revolution  Influenced the American Revolution  How?  Questioned assumptions that led to challenging ideas about government

39 Enlightenment ideas U.S. ConstitutionBill of Rights


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