5Nicolaus Copernicus Studied planetary movements Reasoned that the stars and planets revolve around the sunIdea became known as the heliocentric theoryDidn’t publish findings until his death because of fear of ridicule
6Johannes Kepler Brilliant mathematician Used the data of Tycho Brahe to prove the accuracy of Copernicus’s ideas about the motion of the planets
7Galileo Galilei Scientific discoveries Proposed the heliocentric theorySun-centered theoryLaw of the pendulumFalling objects accelerate at fixed predictable ratesSpent the last years of his life under house arrest because his scientific findings didn’t go along with the church authorities’ interpretation of the Bible
8Francis BaconHelped develop the scientific method
9Isaac Newton Great mathematician and physicist Brought together theories and discoveries of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo under a single theory of motion called the law of universal gravitationAll physical objects are affected equally by the same forces
10Zacharias Janssen Invented the microscope Made the Anton van Leeuwenhoek’s discoveries possible
11Scientific Revolution Caused improvements in medicine and scientific instruments
12What was so revolutionary about the Scientific Revolution?
15Thomas Hobbes Contradicted the ideas of the U.S. constitution Social contractExplained the idea of direct democracy
16John Locke Political thinker Felt people are reasonable Supported self-governmentArgued that the purpose of government is to protect people’s natural rightsIf government can’t protect natural rights- people can overthrow it
17What influence did the ideas of John Locke have on the Declaration of Independence?
18Philosophes Believed in progress for all of society Used reason to address social issues
19VoltaireFought for tolerance, freedom of religion, and freedom of speechGot him into trouble with the clergy, aristocracy, and the government of France
20Montesquieu Devoted to the study of political liberty Wrote On the Spirit of the LawsProposed that separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of a governmentInfluenced the ConstitutionHow?Separation of powers
21Rousseau Had many disagreements with other philosophers Many philosophers believed that reason, science, and art improved the lives of all peopleHe argued that civilization corrupts people’s natural goodness
22Cesare Beccaria Greatly influenced criminal law reformers Argued against the use of torture and other common abuses of justice
23Mary Wollstonecraft Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women Presented an argument for the education of womenDeclared that women should have the same political rights as men
24What were some of the most important effects of the Enlightenment?
27Fredrick II (Great) Ruled Prussia as an enlightenment despot Supported freedom of worship
28Joseph IIRuled Austria as an enlightened despotAbolished serfdom
29Catherine the Great Ruled Russia as an enlightened despot Believed a monarch should have absolute authority*Gave nobility absolute power over the serfsBrutally crushed a massive uprising of serfs* Just like Hobbes
30Why do you think Catherine the Great was attracted to the ideas of the philosophes?
31The American Revolution Section 4The British colonies in North America grew in population and wealth during the 1700s. Population went from about 250,000 in 1700 to 2,150,000 in Economically, they prospered on trade with the nations of Europe. The 13 colonies also had a kind of self-government. People in the colonies began to see themselves less and less as British subjects. Still, Parliament passed laws that governed the colonies. One set of laws banned trade with any nation other than Britain. The high cost of the French and Indian War led Parliament to pass laws that put taxes on the colonists. The colonists became very angry. Theyhad never before paid taxes directly to the British government. They said that the taxes violated theirrights. Since Parliament had no members from the colonies, they said, Parliament had no right to taxthem.
32Thomas JeffersonConstitutional ConventionArticles of ConfederationCongressBill of RightsScientific Revolution
33Thomas Jefferson Wrote the Declaration of Independence The colonists met the first tax, passed in 1765, with a boycott of British goods. Their refusal to buyBritish products was very effective. It forced Parliament to repeal the law. Over the next decade, the colonists and Britain grew further apart. Some colonists wanted to push the colonies to independence. They took actions that caused Britain to act harshly. Eventually, the conflict led to war. Representatives of the colonies met in a congress and formed an army. In July 1776, they announced that they were independent of Britain. They issued the Declaration of Independence. It was based on Enlightenment ideas. Thomas Jefferson wrote it.From 1775 to 1781, the colonies and the British fought a war in North America. The colonists had apoorly equipped army, and Britain was one of the most powerful nations in the world. However, inthe end, the colonies won their independence. The British people grew tired of the cost of thewar and pushed Parliament to agree to a peace. The Americans were also helped greatly by aidfrom France. In 1783, the two sides signed a treaty. In it, Britain recognized the independent UnitedStates of America.
34Constitutional Convention Occurred after the American RevolutionThe 13 states formed a new government under theArticle of Confederation. This government was veryweak. States held all the power and the central governmenthad little. This proved unworkable. In1787, American leaders met again. They wrote anew framework of government.
35Articles of Confederation Created the first national government of the 13 individual states in North America
36CongressCreated by the Articles of Confederation
37Bill of Rights Influences Voltaire John Locke Jean Jacques Rousseau The Constitution of the United States drew on many Enlightenment ideas. It used Montesquieu’sidea of separation of powers into three branches of government. Through a system of checks and balances, each branch was able to prevent other branches from abusing their power. The Constitution also set up a federal system. Under this system, power was divided between national and state governments.The Constitution also used Locke’s idea of putting power in the hands of the people. It used Voltaire’s ideas to protect the right to free speech and freedom of religion. It used Beccaria’s ideas about a fair system of justice.
38Scientific Revolution Influenced the American RevolutionHow?Questioned assumptions that led to challenging ideas about governmentMany of these rights were ensured in a set of additions to the Constitution called the Bill ofRights. The inclusion of a bill of rights helped win approval for the Constitution.
39Enlightenment ideas U.S. Constitution Bill of Rights In what ways did the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights reflect Enlightenment ideas? Be sure to discuss the system of checks and balances and the federal system.