Presentation on theme: "Improving Word Recognition Fluency. The Role of Fluency in the Reading Process ► A large vocabulary of sight words allows students to read fluently. ►"— Presentation transcript:
The Role of Fluency in the Reading Process ► A large vocabulary of sight words allows students to read fluently. ► Comprehension and fluency together let students read and understand information ► Students who do not know a large number of sight words spend more effort decoding and causing them to understand less.
How to Assess Word Recognition ► Listen to the student read Choppy reading - a student stumbles over words, repeats them, or pauses at inappropriate times. May indicate that student sees reading as pronouncing a list of words. Monotonous reading – the student has little expression in their tone and inflection. May indicate that student is just reading words, not understanding. Inappropriately hasty reading – the student reads the text in a hurried manner without regard to punctuation. Indicates that student’s goal may be to finish quickly. Students typically make mistakes on known words.
Working Memory. LaBerge and Samuels (1974) suggest that there is a limited capacity of attention and working memory in cognitive processing and that learning one aspect of reading (word identification) to a criterion of automaticity frees the processing space for higher order thinking (comprehension). Attentional capacity is limited, so more resources are available for comprehension if word identification processes occur relatively effortlessly. Because comprehension requires higher order processes that cannot become automatic, word identification must become the automatic process. The only other option (and the one most commonly attempted by beginning readers) is to switch attention rapidly back and forth from identifying words on the page to constructing meaning, thus limiting he ability to do either one well. (Hudson, 2005)
Determining Reading Rate ► Reading rate is usually a good indication of fluency. ► The student reads orally or silently. ► The number of word per minute (WPM) is determined by counting the number of words in the passage, multiplying by 60 and dividing by the number of seconds it took the student to read the passage. ► An individual student may have variation in his/her reading rate depending of the type of text read.
Timed Readings 1. 1. Record a baseline rate on a new passage by having the student read the passage without knowing that he or she is being timed. The number of words read correctly for that minute are recorded as the baseline. 2. 2. Note the errors as the student reads. After the reading, discuss any errors and work on them by rereading the parts that were difficult or by doing word- study activities. 3. 3. Set a goal for the next reading by asking the student to read five or six more words, or maybe another line. The goal should be a reasonable one that can be attained within the next few attempts. If the student made three or more errors in the first attempt, the goal may be to decrease the errors and keep the correct word per minute (CWMP) the same. 4. 4. Record the goal on the graph with a highlighter. 5. 5. Time the student again for one minute and record the CWPM and errors. 6. 6. Discuss the errors; set another goal and repeat the process. (Hudson, 2005)
Time Administration of Word Lists ► Timed word lists help the teacher determine automatic sight word recognition. ► Time word lists allow for comparison of automatic word recognition of isolated words with total word recognition of isolated words. ► An Informal Reading Inventory is administered. ► Words are recorded as Recognized automatically Recognized after hesitation Not recognized Reading a word list is not real reading.
Strategies to Develop Fluency ► Reading is the best way to improve fluency. ► Students with reading problems often do not read or are not required to read. ► Struggling readers should read books with familiar words to improve fluency. ► Read easy books to the class and leave them on display for students to read.
Specific Strategies ► Easy books Students will read books in which they know most of the words. ► Patterned books Books in which phrases or word patterns are repeated make reading easier. ► Assisted reading Teacher support helps students become comfortable with reading. Word recognition is supported by a fluent reader so that the weaker reader can focus on comprehension. Gives a model of what reading should sound like. Gives reading practice in context
Repeated Readings ► Student rereads a story or passage until a predetermined level of accuracy and fluency is met. ► Student reads the assigned text ► Teacher records reading speed and errors. ► Teacher discusses miscues with the student. ► Student practice the passage over several sessions. ► When the student feels ready, he/she reads and the teacher records speed and errors again.
Multiple-Exposure/Multiple- Context Strategy ► Student reads orally part of the first book of a series. ► Teacher gives correct pronunciation of unknown words. ► Unknown words become target words for the student. ► Teacher presents the words in a variety of ways including word cards, matching games, pictures, writing, cloze activities, etc.
Repeated Readings Advantages ► Flexible strategy ► Easy to adapt to student’s interest ► May be adapted for group use. ► Students may complain occasionally but generally like the improvements that they make.
Language Experience Approach ► Student tells the teacher a personal story. ► The teacher writes the story for the student. ► Student then reads the story, knowing that he/she created it.
Silent Reading Difficulty ► Silent reading allows students to process and think at their own rate. ► Poor readers should be encouraged to read silently as much as possible. ► Poor readers avoid silent reading
Encourage Silent Reading ► Students will be much more independent if they can read on their own. ► Students can read for pleasure anytime they wish rather than waiting for someone to read to them. ► Students may track with their fingers if necessary for comfort of student. (unless it is just a habit.)
Make Oral Reading Comfortable ► Assign oral reading ahead of time to allow for practice. ► Limit the amount of oral reading required. ► Tell the student unknown words and move on. ► Avoid correcting small mistakes that do not change the meaning of the passage.
Fluency Development Lesson ► Teacher reads a passage to the class while students follow along. ► Teacher and students discuss words and expression. ► Teacher and class read together several times. ► Students read in pairs to practice fluency and expression. ► Volunteer reads to class.
Reasonable Fluency Growth Rate First Grade: 2-3 words per week increase in Correct Words per Minute (CWPM) Second Grade: 2.5-3.5 words per week increase in CWPM Third Grade: 1-3 words per week increase in CWPM Fourth Grade:.85-1.5 words per week increase in CWPM (Hudson, 2005)
Repeated Reading Using Grade Level Text ► Teacher previews new vocabulary and reviews decoding strategies. ► Class discusses what they think will be in the text. ► Teacher reads the text while students follow along. ► Class discusses what was read. ► Students reread in pairs using echo reading, choral reading and buddy reading. ► Students reread text to the teacher individually.
Buyer Beware! Read-Along Centers Marie Carbo developed a method of recording books that makes it possible for a developing reader to read along with the recording. Carbo Recorded Books are recorded at a much slower pace than listening center books, yet they maintain the expression and inflection necessary for understanding. Using this method, Carbo (1981, 1992) reported reading gains among struggling readers. Marie Carbo developed a method of recording books that makes it possible for a developing reader to read along with the recording. Carbo Recorded Books are recorded at a much slower pace than listening center books, yet they maintain the expression and inflection necessary for understanding. Using this method, Carbo (1981, 1992) reported reading gains among struggling readers. (Hudson, 2005)
Fluency Beyond the Primary Grades Bridging the Gap
Students are expected to read independently after the primary grades. ► Instruction dedicated to fluency development is rarely found in classrooms. ► Unrehearsed oral reading of texts and basals is the only time students read aloud, a frustrating experience for struggling readers. ► Teacher feedback and instruction are rare.
Reading performance is an activity that develops fluency. ► Reading performance combines repeated reading with meaningful activities. ► It allows struggling readers opportunities to practice and perform. ► The performances provide positive social interactions focused on reading.
The foundation for reading performance is built through teacher modeling and instruction. ► The teacher reads aloud while the students listen and follow the print: ► Students echo read (repeat text) ► Students choral read (read along with) ► Students might daily choral read a poem per week ► Metacognitive instruction helps students know how to monitor their fluency.
There are a variety of approaches to reading performance. ► Readers Theatre is an excellent activity to group and allows for grouping by interest. ► Poetry lends itself to reading performance, with opportunity to refine phrasing and expression. ► Buddy reading is a reading performance in which older students read a book to a younger student.
Materials and instruction promote the transfer of fluency to silent, independent reading. ► Guided oral fluency instruction helps to develop students’ ability to read silently for meaning. ► Students should be given time daily to read silently while teachers circulate and provide instruction. ► The books read should be at the student’s independent reading level. ► Series books and nonfiction trade books are good sources to improve fluency and independent reading.
Today I Had a Rotten Day Today I had a rotten day. As I was coming in from play I accidentally stubbed my toes And tripped and fell and whacked my nose. I chipped a tooth. I cut my lip. I scraped my knee. I hurt my hip. I pulled my shoulder, tweaked my ear, And got a bruise upon my rear. I banged my elbow, barked my shin. A welt is forming on my chin. My pencil poked my in the thigh. I got an eyelash in my eye. I sprained my back. I wrenched my neck. I’m feeling like a total wreck. So that’s the last time I refuse When teacher says to tie my shoes. Kenn Nesbitt www.poetry4kids.comwww.poetry4kids Choral Reading Activity
Developing Sight Words in Isolation Most sight words are function words which are difficult to learn because They have abstract meaning. They look alike. They do not always follow familiar pronunciation patterns.
Strategies for Teaching in Isolation ► Connect the word with its meaning. ► Practice words often. ► Record progress for encouragement.
Strategies for Focusing on Words ► Word Cards ► Collecting Words ► Word Sorts ► Games ► Word Walls
Mastering Function Words then, than, when, what, where, were ► Point out context clues that will help determine meaning. ► Use cloze strategy in which key words are left out of the passage. ► Use star approach in which students are given stars when they say the word correctly.
The goal is to get the students reading independently by using a repetition of words, characters, and situations that provide them with a growing sense of control over reading. The Goal of the Curious George Method Each book repeats the words from previous books and introduces new words. The Reason It Works
Curious George Technique Small groups are led by the teacher’s 4 day lesson plans. The teacher begins the lessons by reading 1/3 part of the book aloud the first day. Then the teacher and students discuss and read the book again together. The book and these words are sent home each night from the very 1 st day. A book series is selected and used like,“Harry the Dirty Dog,” “The Berenstain Bears,” and of course, “Curious George”
The students pick 5 words from the story and bring these words home, along with the book, every night for 3 nights. Everyday there is a sharing time for the word cards that were sent home the night before and also a sharing time for the story read from the book. On the fourth and final day of the lesson, the children read sequels to the book series that was chosen. Curious George Technique (cont’d)
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (cont.) Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies in reading (PALS-R) Students are paired, one higher and one lower performer Students of all levels outperformed those students not participating in PALS
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies Activities ► Sounds and Words ► Partner Reading ► Speed-Reading Game
Primary Fluency Rubric I noticed that my partner… After 2 nd Reading After 3 rd Reading Remembered more words Read faster Read smoother Read with expression www.auburn.edu
Virtual Field Trip The International Fluency Association The International Fluency Association (click for website) (click for website) This is the webpage for the IFA. It contains many resources and links for understanding and improving fluency. Reading Recovery Videos (click for website) Reading Recovery Videos (click for website) Follow this link to the Reading Recovery homepage and watch information videos.
Resources available at http://teacher.scholastic. com/ http://teacher.scholastic. com/
The Six Minute Solution: A The Six Minute Solution: A Reading Fluency Program Reading Fluency Program By Gail Adams and Sheron Brown By Gail Adams and Sheron Brown Partners students as they read and track the number of words read and errors made. Based on National Reading Panels findings that repeated readings paired with feedback increase reading ability. Partners students as they read and track the number of words read and errors made. Based on National Reading Panels findings that repeated readings paired with feedback increase reading ability. Do you think elementary age students are capable of evaluating fluency in their peers? Are they able to accurately track their partner’s progress? Do you think elementary age students are capable of evaluating fluency in their peers? Are they able to accurately track their partner’s progress?
Download a Reader’s Theatre script and make repeated reading fun for the entire class. Try these about America at:: http://www.teachers.net/lessons/posts/972.html http://www.surfcitydelux.com/readerstheater/America.html http://www.revolutionary-war.info/poems/http://www.revolutionary-war.info/poems/ poetry Find out more at: http://www.teachingheart.net/readerstheater.htm http://www.cdli.ca/CITE/langrt.htm http://www.humboldt.edu/~jmf2/floss/rt-eval.htmlhttp://www.humboldt.edu/~jmf2/floss/rt-eval.html evaluation http://www.readingonline.org/electronic/carrick/
Website References www.reading-activities.com http://www.auburn.edu/~murraba/fluency.html http://www.esl.about.com/library/vocabulary/bl850_basics.htm http://www.eslcafe.com/index.html http://www.theifa.org/links.html http://www.mnsu.edu/comdis/kuster/therapy.html http://www.teachersdesk.com/lessons/esl/fables/Fables.htmhttp://www.teachersdesk.com/lessons/esl/fables/Fables.htm (tells how fables can help with fluency…familiarity is good… http://www.teachersdesk.com/lessons/esl/fables/Fables.htm http://teacher.scholastic.com/reading/bestpractices/fluency.htm http://www.sraonline.com http://www.ed.gov/teachers/how/tools/initiative/summerworkshop/mccab e/index.html http://www.ed.gov/teachers/how/tools/initiative/summerworkshop/mccab e/index.html http://www.merriam-webster.comhttp://www.merriam-webster.com This one has sounds for words. http://www.merriam-webster.com
Related Articles Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L. S. (2005). Peer-assisted learning strategies: Promoting word recognition, fluency, and reading comprehension in young children. The Journal of Special Education, 39 (1). 34-44 Juel, C. & Minden-Cupp, C. (2000). Learning to read words: Linguistic units and instructional strategies. Reading Research Quarterly 35 (4). 458-492. Worthy, J., & Broadus, K. (2002). Fluency beyond the primary grades: from group performance to silent independent reading. Reading Teacher, 55(4),. Hudson, R. F., Lane, H. B., & Pullen P. C. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: what, why, and how?. The Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702-714. Higgins, E. L.,& Raskind, M. H. (2004). Speech recognition-based and automaticity programs to help students with severe reading and spelling problems. Annals of Dyslexia, 54(2), 365-392. Viadero, Debra. (2004). Educational Forecasting. Education Week, 24, (12). 28- 30.