Simple Present FORM We study every day There are 7 days in a week
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1 Simple Present FORM We study every day There are 7 days in a week We take classes at Downtown Campus.I am a Capricorn. What’s your sign?FUNCTIONGeneral statements of fact & timeless truthsHabitual actions
2 Present Progressive FORM We are reviewing grammar The air conditioning is runningMy stomach is growlingMy sister is writing a book about dolphins* I’m leaving at 10pm tonight.FUNCTIONAction in progress nowTemporary activity that began in the past and will end in the future.*Can express future meaning with future context or words.
3 Simple Past We went to the Grand Canyon last winter. FUNCTIONaction that began and ended in the past.FORMWe went to the Grand Canyon last winter.I played football in high school.I told him already.We studied every dayI was sick with the flu last week.
4 Past Progressive FORM I was telling your brother what happened. I was studying when you called.I was walking down the street when it started to rain.FUNCTIONaction in progress at a particular time in the past
5 Simple FutureFORMBe careful, you’ll hurt yourself! OR Be careful, you’re going to hurt yourself!I’m going to work at 9am on Saturday.I’m going to study tonight.I’ll help you wash the dishes(phone rings) I’ll get it!FUNCTIONFor predictions, will OR be going to are both possible.To express a prior plan, ONLY be going to is used.To express willingness, ONLY will is used.
6 Future Progressive FORM I will be studying when you get home from work tomorrow night. OR I’m going to be studying when you get home from work tomorrow night.Don’t get impatient. She will be coming soon.Don’t get impatient. She will come soon.FUNCTIONactivity that will be in progress at a time in the futureSometimes there is little or no difference between future progressive and simple future, especially when the future even will occur at an indefinite time in the future.The same rules ( will vs. be going to) of Simple Future apply for this tense
7 The dreaded Present Perfect This is often a difficult tense for students.But once you know when to use it, it’s not so bad!
8 Present Perfect has 3 main uses 1. To express that sth has happened or never happened at a non-specific time in the past.2. To express the repetition of an activity before now.NOTE: It is possible that the activity is ongoing/continuing.3. With since or for, to express a situation (not action) that began in the past and continues to the present.NOTE: For actions, we use Present Perfect Progressive
9 1st use of Present Perfect FORMI’ve met you before, but I can’t remember when.Have you ever lost your wallet?I’ve never lost my wallet.FUNCTIONTo express that sth has happened or never happened at a non-specific time in the past.
10 2nd use of Present Perfect FORMI’ve flown on airplanes many times.I’ve studied for every test.I’ve told my daughter how important school is.FUNCTIONTo express the repetition of an activity before now.NOTE: It is possible that the activity is ongoing/continuing.
11 3rd use of Present Perfect FORMI’ve known Sam for 5 years.I’ve loved my husband since the day I met him.Mary has been building her house for 2 years. (build=action, so we use present perfect progressive)FUNCTIONWith since or for, to express a situation (not action) that began in the past and continues to the present.NOTE: For actions, we use Present Perfect Progressive
12 Present Perfect Progressive FORMI have been studying for 2 hours.He has been telling the same jokes since I met him.You’ve been working since 7am! You should take a break!FUNCTIONExpresses an action began in the past and continues to the present.NOTE: It is possible/likely that this will continue into the future.
13 Past Perfect Progressive *You need 2 events in the past FORMI had been watching a movie when you called last night.Sarah had been crying when her mom came to the house with flowers.He had been trying to fix the sink for 3 hours when his wife called the plumber.FUNCTIONexpresses that the 1st event in the past was happening when the 2nd one happened.
14 Future Perfect Progressive *You need 2 events in the future FORMTom will have been studying for 3 hours when his roommate gets home from work.Maria will have been working at the company for 10 years next May.We will have been driving for 41/2 hours by the time we reach Flagstaff.FUNCTIONexpresses that the 1st event will be happening when the 2nd event happens.
15 Past Perfect *You need 2 events in the past FORMTom had already studied Chapter 1 before he began studying Chapter 2.I had bought the milk before you called to tell me we don’t need milk tonight.She had told me the price was $5, and then you told me it was $7. What’s going on?FUNCTIONPast Perfect expresses that one event happened, and was completed before the other event happened in the past.
16 Future Perfect *You need 2 events in the future FORMTom will already have studied Chapter 4 before he studies Chapter 5.She will already have left by the time we arrive.I will have completed all my classes by graduation.FUNCTIONone event will happen and be completed, before the 2nd event happens.
17 Finally, a trick! The following 4 tenses: Past Perfect, Past Perfect Progressive,Future PerfectFuture Perfect Progressiveall exist to show us time order when there is more than 1 event in time. If we use the words before or after, or if the time order is clear from context, we do not need these tenses. We can use simple tenses instead.
18 2. Past Perfect Progressive Examples:Past PerfectI had bought the milk before you called to tell me we don’t need milk tonight.I bought the milk before you called to tell me we don’t need milk tonight.2. Past Perfect ProgressiveI had been watching a movie when you called last night.I was watching a movie when you called last night.Future PerfectShe will already have left by the time we arrive.She will leave before we arrive.4. Future Perfect ProgressiveMaria will have been working at the company for 10 years next May.Maria will be working for the company for 10 years next May