Cardiovascular disease – set of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels ~ 40% deaths in U.S. Heart muscle requires O2 rich blood to survive Coronary arteries – branch off of the aorta and supply the heart muscle with O2 If a coronary artery becomes blocked the heart tissue without blood will quickly die Heart attack – failure of the heart to function properly
Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis – chronic cardiovascular disease
Cholesterol and other substances build up in the arteries called plaque This build up narrows passage, decreases blood flow, increases blood pressure Lifestyle changes – no smoking, healthy diet, increase exercise
Treatments for cardiovascular disease
Drugs to lower cholesterol Angioplasty – inserting a balloon catheter to compress plaque against the vessel wall therefore opening clogged arteries Stent – small wire mesh tubes to prop open the arteries By-pass surgery – blood vessels removed from leg and sewn onto heart to shunt blood around a blocked artery Heart transplant or artificial heart These only treat symptoms not the causes…problems will return if lifestyle changes are not changed!
Cardiovascular Risk Factors
You can control… Diet High cholesterol HDL (good) LDL (bad) Weight (obesity) High blood pressure Cigarette smoking Physical inactivity Stress You cannot control… Genetics Male sex Increasing age Diabetes
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