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Published byMichael Hines Modified over 7 years ago
PRESENTED BY : FATHIMA SHAIK ROLL# 1431 MD 04
WHAT IS ATHEROSCLEROSIS? CAUSES PATHOGENESIS SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS COMPLICATIONS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT
Chronic inflammatory disorder of intima of large arteries characterized by formation of fibrofatty plaques called atheroma, which protrudes into and obstructs the vascular lumen & weakens the underlying media & may be associated with serious complications. The Plaques are made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the organs. It is a slow, complex disease that may start in childhood and develop faster with increasing age.
Hypertension High cholesterol, or saturated fats in diet High triglycerides in blood, Low HDL, High LDL Smoking and other sources of tobacco Diabetes Family history of Cardiovascular diseases Obesity Lack of physical activity
It is a 6 step process that progresses over several decades before becoming clinically significant. Begins with an initial lesion in which the damaged artery wall is invaded by LDL. Oxidized LDL are then taken up by macrophages to form foam cells. Eventually these cells die and form the necrotic core of atheroma. Furthermore, a fibrous cap is formed over the atheroma.
Fatty streaks are the earliest lesions seen with atherosclerosis in arteries.
Symptoms of moderate to severe atherosclerosis depend on which arteries are affected. CORONARY ARTERIES : Angina, Shortness of breath, arrhythmias. CAROTID ARTERIES: symptoms of Stroke/ Transient Ischemic Attack; paralysis of one side of face, trouble speaking and understanding speech, sudden weakness, severe headache, unexplained falls (loss of balance), vision problems. PERIPHERAL ARTERIES : pain on walking (Intermittent Claudication), poor wound healing, less sensitivity to heat & cold
1. Myocardial infarction ( heart attack) 2. Cerebral infarction ( stroke) 3. Chronic IHD (Ischemic Heart Disease) 4. ischemic encephalopathy 5. Aortic aneurysms 6. Peripheral vascular disease ( gangrene of the legs) 7. mesenteric occlusion 8. Sudden cardiac death
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: may listen to your arteries for an abnormal whooshing sound- BRUIT. A weak or absent pulse can also be a sign of a blocked artery. ANGIOGRAPHY : is a test that uses dye and special x rays to show the inside of your arteries. This test can show whether plaque is blocking the arteries and how severe the blockage is.
ANKLE-BRACHIAL INDEX: This test can tell if the arteries in legs and feet are affected with atherosclerosis. BLOOD TEST –LIPID PROFILE: detect increased levels of cholesterol and blood sugar that may increase the risk of atherosclerosis. X-Rays, CT-scan and MRI often show hardening and narrowing of large arteries, as well as aneurysms and calcium deposits in the artery walls. DOPPLER ULTRASOUND, STRESS TEST, & EKG are also used for diagnosing atherosclerosis.
Cholesterol Medications (Statins or Fibrates) : lowers LDL and boosts HDL levels. Anti-platelet drugs (Aspirin): to reduce the likelihood of platelet clumping in narrowed arteries to form a blood clot. Beta blockers: lowers heart rate and blood pressure, reducing the workload on heart and often relieve symptoms of chest pain. ACE inhibitors, Calcium channel blockers, Diuretics: help slow the progression of atherosclerosis by lowering blood pressure.
ANGIOPLASTY AND STENT PLACEMENT: A Catheter with a deflated balloon is inserted into the blocked or narrowed part of artery. The balloon is then inflated, compressing the deposits against the artery walls. A mesh tube (stent) is usually left in the artery to help keep the artery open. ENDARTERECTOMY : In this procedure, the fatty deposits are surgically removed. BYPASS SURGERY: a graft bypass is created using a vessel from another part of body or a tube made of synthetic fabric and inserted. This allows blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed artery.
http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/what-is- atherosclerosis http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/what-is- atherosclerosis http://www.cholesterol-hdl-ldl.com/prevention-of- atherosclerosis.html http://www.cholesterol-hdl-ldl.com/prevention-of- atherosclerosis.html http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health- topics/topics/atherosclerosis/prevention http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health- topics/topics/atherosclerosis/prevention http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases- conditions/arteriosclerosis- atherosclerosis/basics/prevention/con-20026972 http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases- conditions/arteriosclerosis- atherosclerosis/basics/prevention/con-20026972 THANK YOU!
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