Presentation on theme: "Blood Pressure. The Dangers of High Blood Pressure Medical term = hypertension. High BP= condition in which the pressure (tension) blood exerts on the."— Presentation transcript:
The Dangers of High Blood Pressure Medical term = hypertension. High BP= condition in which the pressure (tension) blood exerts on the walls of blood vessels goes up and stays high Damages the blood vessels, the heart, and other organs. High risk factor for coronary heart disease. Highest risk factor for stroke )3 rd leading cause of death in the U.S.) Common cause of heart failure (leading cause of death in the U.S.) Common cause of kidney disease.
Symptoms of High Blood Pressure Usually no symptoms, many people don’t realize they have it. High BP can only be detected with accurate, repeated measurements of a person’s BP Can be treated safely and effectively, but only about one- quarter of people with high BP take necessary steps to keep BP within a normal range.
Potential Causes of High BP Smoking Being overweight or obese Lack of physical activity Too much salt in the diet High alcohol consumption (>1-2 drinks/day) Stress Older age Genetics Family history of high blood pressure Chronic kidney disease Adrenal and thyroid disorders
You are at higher risk for high BP if you… Have family members with high BP smoke. are African-Americans. pregnant take birth control pills. over the age of 35. are overweight or obese. are not active. drink alcohol excessively. eat too many fatty and/or salty foods
Estimated to affect > 50 million Americans or about 1 in 4 adults When BP is consistently high, the continuous increased force on blood vessel walls causes damage blood vessels and organs, including the heart, kidneys, eyes, and brain.
Cardiac Circulation Coronary arteries deliver the blood that oxygenates and nourishes the myocardium Cardiac veins drain blood from myocardium into coronary sinus which empties into the right atrium.
Disruptions of Cardiac Circulation Angina pectoris: crushing chest pain due to myocardial oxygen deprivation – blood supply to myocardium becomes inadequate if heart rate is too rapid – If HR is rapid, the relaxation periods when blood flows into myocardial tissue are shortened Atherosclerosis: plaque made of cholesterol and other cells build up in the walls of the coronary arteries Myocardial infarcation: “heart attack”/ “coronary” – Blood vessels to the heart are blocked, preventing oxygen from getting cells causing damage or death of the heart muscle – Can result from restricted blood flow due to atherosclerosis (likely during exercise or physical strain) – Usually caused by a clot that blocks a coronary artery – often if the plaque build up tears, blood stick to it and from a thrombus (clot)
Symptoms of Myocardial Infarction Major symptom = chest pain – Tight band around chest, bad indigestion, something heavy sitting on chest, squeezing or heavy pressure Other symptoms include: – Anxiety, cough, fainting, light headedness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, palpitations and sweating. “Silent” heart attacks have no symptoms
Risk Factors for Heart Attack Increasing age (over age 65) Male gender Diabetes Family history of coronary artery disease (genetic or hereditary factors) High blood pressure Smoking High fat diet Unhealthy cholesterol levels Chronic kidney disease
Heart Attack Treatments/Prevention Angioplasty and Stent placement: – Open blocked vessel using balloon catheter/guidewire – Stent is a small, metal mesh tube that expands in artery to prevent it from re-closing Thrombolytic therapy – “clot busting” – drugs to break up clot w/i first few hours of chest pain By-pass/ “Open Heart Surgery” – Take vein or artery from elsewhere in the body and use it to bypass blocked artery Additional medicines: – Nitroglycerin: helps reduce pain – Anti-platelet medicine: help prevent clot from forming (ex. Aspirin)