2The Dangers of High Blood Pressure Medical term = hypertension.High BP= condition in which the pressure (tension) blood exerts on the walls of blood vessels goes up and stays highDamages the blood vessels, the heart, and other organs.High risk factor for coronary heart disease.Highest risk factor for stroke )3rd leading cause of death in the U.S.)Common cause of heart failure (leading cause of death in the U.S.)Common cause of kidney disease.
3Symptoms of High Blood Pressure Usually no symptoms, many people don’t realize they have it.High BP can only be detected with accurate, repeated measurements of a person’s BPCan be treated safely and effectively, but only about one-quarter of people with high BP take necessary steps to keep BP within a normal range.
4Potential Causes of High BP SmokingBeing overweight or obeseLack of physical activityToo much salt in the dietHigh alcohol consumption (>1-2 drinks/day)StressOlder ageGeneticsFamily history of high blood pressureChronic kidney diseaseAdrenal and thyroid disorders
5You are at higher risk for high BP if you… Have family members with high BPsmoke.are African-Americans.pregnanttake birth control pills.over the age of 35.are overweight or obese.are not active.drink alcohol excessively.eat too many fatty and/or salty foods
6Estimated to affect > 50 million Americans or about 1 in 4 adults When BP is consistently high, the continuous increased force on blood vessel walls causes damage blood vessels and organs, including the heart, kidneys, eyes, and brain.
7Cardiac CirculationCoronary arteries deliver the blood that oxygenates and nourishes the myocardiumCardiac veins drain blood from myocardium into coronary sinus which empties into the right atrium.
8Disruptions of Cardiac Circulation Angina pectoris: crushing chest pain due to myocardial oxygen deprivationblood supply to myocardium becomes inadequate if heart rate is too rapidIf HR is rapid, the relaxation periods when blood flows into myocardial tissue are shortenedAtherosclerosis: plaque made of cholesterol and other cells build up in the walls of the coronary arteriesMyocardial infarcation: “heart attack”/ “coronary”Blood vessels to the heart are blocked, preventing oxygen from getting cells causing damage or death of the heart muscleCan result from restricted blood flow due to atherosclerosis (likely during exercise or physical strain)Usually caused by a clot that blocks a coronary artery – often if the plaque build up tears, blood stick to it and from a thrombus (clot)
9Symptoms of Myocardial Infarction Major symptom = chest painTight band around chest, bad indigestion, something heavy sitting on chest, squeezing or heavy pressureOther symptoms include:Anxiety, cough, fainting, light headedness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, palpitations and sweating.“Silent” heart attacks have no symptoms
10Risk Factors for Heart Attack Increasing age (over age 65)Male genderDiabetesFamily history of coronary artery disease (genetic or hereditary factors)High blood pressureSmokingHigh fat dietUnhealthy cholesterol levelsChronic kidney disease
11Heart Attack Treatments/Prevention Angioplasty and Stent placement:Open blocked vessel using balloon catheter/guidewireStent is a small, metal mesh tube that expands in artery to prevent it from re-closingThrombolytic therapy“clot busting” – drugs to break up clot w/i first few hours of chest painBy-pass/ “Open Heart Surgery”Take vein or artery from elsewhere in the body and use it to bypass blocked arteryAdditional medicines:Nitroglycerin: helps reduce painAnti-platelet medicine: help prevent clot from forming (ex. Aspirin)