Presentation on theme: "Ecology and our World Ecology The study of interactions between living things and their environment Levels in Ecology 1. Individual A single member of."— Presentation transcript:
Ecology and our World Ecology The study of interactions between living things and their environment Levels in Ecology 1. Individual A single member of a species 2. Population A group of individuals of a species. 3. Community Several species in an area. 4. Ecosystem Living and nonliving things in an area 5. Biosphere All the biomes
How do organisms interact? Producers- organisms that produce their own energy, and are food for other organisms. Consumers They are also called autotrophs - organisms that have to eat other organisms for their energy They are also called heterotrophs
Consumers come in a wide variety Herbivores - Organisms that eat only plant material. Carnivores - Organisms that eat only other animals. Omnivores - Organisms that eat both plant and animal. Detrivores - Organisms that eat “dead matter” Decomposers - Organisms that break down organic matter
Who eats who? Food Chain - a series of steps showing which organisms eat which. (transfer energy) Food Web - a chart linking all food webs in a particular area
Another way to show relationships Ecological Pyramids Biomass Pyramid - each level in the pyramid shows the total amount of organisms in the level Numbers Pyramid - each level shows the numbers of individuals in the pyramid
Energy Pyramid - each transition shows the amount of loss of energy from one level to the next. 90% 90% of energy is lost to heat from one level to the next. Only 10% of your food is actually incorporated into making you!
Cycles in Nature Water Cycle - shows the different stages that water goes through in ecology
Carbon Cycle - the carbon that makes you and all other living (and many non living) things is shown moving through the environment.
Nitrogen Cycle - All organisms require nitrogen. This cycle shows how it moves through the environment.
How do individuals interact in an environment? The environment contains two different things: 1. Biotic Factors All living organisms 2. Abiotic Factors All non-living things
Biotic factors in the environment interact in many ways Competition When groups are using limited resources Situation leaves winners and losers. Predation When one organism feeds on another
They can form a symbiotic relationship (three different types) 1. Mutualism Both individuals benefit. 2. Commensalism One is helped, one is neither helped or harmed. 3. Parasitism One is helped, the other is harmed.
How are new environments created? New land formation happens due to natural occurrences. Volcanoes Tsunamis But what happens when the world gets back to normal?
After the new land is created, Succession takes place. Primary succession: - (pioneer species) begin to colonize the newly formed land. These are smaller plants and grasses, then trees. Secondary succession: -happens only when one type of plant replaces another type Ex. Trees taking over a meadow.
Biomes: Def: a large area that is characterized by certain soil, climate. plants, and animals.