2 Ecology….the study of the interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment.Greek: Oikos = house
3 A Key Theme In EcologyInterconnectedness or Interdependence: All 5 levels of Ecological Organization , influence by biotic and abiotic factors.
4 Levels of Ecological Organization Organisms-> Populations-> Community->Ecosystem-> Biome
5 Levels of Ecological Organization Definitions:Populations: A group of indiciduals of one species living in one area.Community: All organisms living in one area.Ecosystems: All the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic (non living) factors\Biosphere- The global ecosystem.
7 How do we Research? Lab: pg.401 ObservationExperimentationModeling: taking past data to predict how it will effect the ecological organisms in question.Improving PredictionsWeather observation techniques have improved and there have been technological advancements in predicting the weather in recent times. On average, a five-day weather forecast of today is as reliable as a two-day weather forecast 20 years ago. Despite this major scientific and technical progress, many challenges remain regarding long-term weather predictability.
8 Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic: all living thingsAbiotic: temperature, humidity, pH, salinity, oxygen concentration, sunlight, nitrogen, and precipitation.
10 Changing one factor in an ecosystem can effect Biodiversity. Biodiversity: The variety of life in an ecosystem.Keystone Species: A single species that effects the entire ecosystemThe carnivorous starfish Pisaster ochracceus is a keystone species in the intertidal zones of the Pacific northwestPaine (1969) originally defined a keystone predator as a species that feeds preferentially on the dominant competitor among its prey species, such that the keystone predator’s feeding prevents the dominant prey from excluding other species, and therefore maintains a higher species diversity in the system than in the keystone’s absence
11 Energy Transfer Producers: Autotrophs (photo and chemo) Gross primary productivity, biomass, and net primary productivityGross energy: Amount of energy produced total, Net energy: amount of energy that can be used by others.
12 ConsumersHeterotrophs: Herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detritivores, saprophytes, and decomposers.
16 What type of consumer are you? Generalist: have a varied dietSpecialists: only eat one specific organism or a few types organisms.Include:Herbivores:PlantsCarnivores: AnimalsOminivores: Plants and AnimalsDetritovores: Eat detritus, dead organicsDecomposers: Like fungi break down organic matter into simple compounds.
17 How does matter Cycle? Water cycle Oxygen Cycle Carbon Cycle Nitrogen CyclePhosphorous Cycle
21 Today’s Environment Exploding Human Population ….increasing demand for energy, food, and space.Population: A group of individuals of one species living in one area who interbreed and interact.HumanPopulationGraphs
22 Sixth Mass Extinction….Loss of habitat, pollution, over hunting and fishing.Oil Rig Disasters…oops!
23 The Great Pacific Garbage Patch The Great Pacific Garbage PatchThe size of Texas