Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Personality Theory & Assessment Chapter 14 Part I William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005 Personality Theories

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Personality Theory & Assessment Chapter 14 Part I William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005 Personality Theories"— Presentation transcript:

1 Personality Theory & Assessment Chapter 14 Part I William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005 Personality Theories

2 Summary –biological –able to be conditioned –sensing & perceiving –emotional –intelligent –knowledge creating –rational thinking –creative thinking A human being is inherently –language using –social –motivated –patterned

3 Defining Personality and Traits Personality –Distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual throughout life. Trait –A characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling.

4 Personality Theories Distinctive, unique –Patterns of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that make a person different from others Commonalities –Dimensions on which all human beings can be measured and compared

5 Temperament Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways. –Ancient Greeks proposed temperaments Sanguine Melancholy Choleric Phlegmatic –Thomas, Chess, and Birch Studied 2- to 3-month-old infants on 9 factors and followed them into adolescence and adulthood

6 Three general types of temperament emerged from the study –Easy (40%) –generally pleasant moods; adaptable; approached new situations and people positively; established regular sleeping, eating, and elimination patterns –Difficult (15%) –generally unpleasant moods; reacted negatively to new situations and people; intense in their emotional reactions; showed irregularity of bodily functions –Slow-to-warm-up (10%) – tended to withdraw; slow to adapt; had a medium mood Temperament

7 Martin, Wisenbaker and Huttunen –Inhibition (approach-avoidance) –Negative emotionality –Adaptability –Activity level –Task persistence Similar to the Big Five factors identified in the study of adult personality Temperament

8 Research indicates that –temperament is strongly influenced by heredity –environmental factors, such as parents childrearing style, also affect temperament –temperament is relatively stable over time; the various dimensions of temperament can predict behavioral problems that may appear later in childhood or in adolescence Temperament

9 Psychoanalytic –Freud –Neo-Freudians Carl Jung Erik Erikson Alfred Adler Karen Horney Humanistic –Abraham Maslow –Carl Rogers –Viktor Frankl Personality Theories Learning –B. F. Skinner Social Cognition –George Kelly –Walter Mischel –Albert Bandura –Albert Ellis Transpersonal –Roberto Assagioli –Ken Wilber

10 Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis –Freuds term for his theory of personality and his therapy for treating psychological disorders The conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious –Freud believed that there are three levels of awareness in consciousness: the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious

11 Sigmund Freud The conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious –Conscious The thoughts, feelings, sensations, or memories of which a person is aware at any given moment –Preconscious The thoughts, feelings, and memories that a person is not consciously aware of at the moment but that may be brought to consciousness –Unconscious For Freud, the primary motivating force of behavior, containing repressed memories as well as instincts and wishes that have never been conscious

12 Sigmund Freud Freud proposed three systems of personality –Id The unconscious system of the personality, which contains the life and death instincts and operates on the pleasure principle –Ego The rational, largely conscious system of personality, which operates according to the reality principle –Superego The moral system of the personality, which consists of the conscience and the ego ideal

13 Sigmund Freud

14 Defense mechanisms –An unconscious, irrational means used by the ego to defend against anxiety; involves self-deception and the distortion of reality –Repression Involuntarily removing an unpleasant memory or barring disturbing sexual and aggressive impulses from consciousness –Projection Attributing ones own undesirable thoughts, impulses, traits, or behaviors to others Allows people to avoid acknowledging unacceptable traits and thereby to maintain self-esteem, but seriously distorts their perception of the external world

15 Sigmund Freud Defense mechanisms –Denial Refusing to acknowledge consciously the existence of danger or a threatening condition –Rationalization Supplying a logical, rational, socially acceptable reason rather than the real reason for an action When people rationalize, they make excuses for, or justify, failures and mistakes –Regression Reverting to a behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development

16 Sigmund Freud Defense mechanisms –Reaction formation Denying an unacceptable impulse, often sexual or aggressive, by giving strong conscious expression to its opposite –Displacement Substituting a less threatening object for the original object of an impulse –Sublimation Rechanneling sexual or aggressive energy into pursuits that society considers acceptable or admirable

17 Sigmund Freud The psychosexual stages of development –Psychosexual stages A series of stages through which the sexual instinct develops –Fixation Arrested development at a psychosexual stage occurring because of excessive gratification or frustration at that stage

18 Sigmund Freud Evaluating Freuds contribution –Unconscious forces may motivate behavior, –Emphasizing the influence of early childhood experiences on later development –Psychoanalysis is still viewed as a useful therapeutic technique

19 Carl Jung Disagreed with Freud –the sexual instinct is not the main factor in personality –the personality is not almost completely formed in early childhood

20 Carl Jung Personality consists of three parts –Ego the rational, largely conscious system of personality, which operates according to the reality principle –Personal unconscious all of the thoughts and experiences that are accessible to the conscious, as well as repressed memories and impulses –Collective unconscious contains the universal experiences of humankind transmitted to each individual; not available to conscious thought Archetype –Existing in the collective unconscious, an inherited tendency to perceive and respond in particular ways to universal human situations (Joseph Campbell)

21 Carl Jung Personality functions –Extroversion vs Introversion (orientation) –Sensing vs Intuition (data collection) –Thinking vs Feeling (making judgments) –Judging vs Perceiving (preferred function) Temperaments –SP (sanguine, artist) –SJ (melancholy, guardian) –NT (choleric, rational) –NF (phlegmatic, idealistic)

22 Alfred Adler Emphasized the unity of the personality rather than the separate warring components of id, ego, and superego Maintained that the drive to overcome feelings of inferiority acquired in childhood motivates most of our behavior Claimed that people develop a style of life at an early age – a unique way in which the child and later the adult will go about the struggle to achieve superiority

23 Erik Erikson Developed theory of socioemotional development Believed that a healthy adult personality depends on acquiring the appropriate basic attitudes in the proper sequence during childhood and adolescence Developed lifespan approach to personality development

24 Karen Horney Believed that personality could continue to develop and change throughout life Believed that many of womens psychological difficulties arise from failure to live up to an idealized version of themselves To be psychologically healthy, women, she claimed, (and men for that matter) must learn to overcome irrational beliefs about the need for perfection

Download ppt "Personality Theory & Assessment Chapter 14 Part I William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005 Personality Theories"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google