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Sigmund Freud The Psychoanalytic Approach. Background  Began as a physician  In seeing patients, began to formulate basis for later theory Sexual conflicts.

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Presentation on theme: "Sigmund Freud The Psychoanalytic Approach. Background  Began as a physician  In seeing patients, began to formulate basis for later theory Sexual conflicts."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sigmund Freud The Psychoanalytic Approach

2 Background  Began as a physician  In seeing patients, began to formulate basis for later theory Sexual conflicts were primary cause of all neuroses Sexual conflicts were primary cause of all neuroses

3 Instincts  Basic elements of the personality  Life instincts: Serve purpose of survival Libido: Pleasurable behaviors Libido: Pleasurable behaviors  Death instincts: Uncs drive to death and destruction Aggressive drive: Compulsion to destroy, conquer, kill Aggressive drive: Compulsion to destroy, conquer, kill

4 Levels of Personality  Conscious: Ordinary everyday meaning  Preconscious: Between 2 layers Memories of which we are not consciously aware, but can be easily called into consciousness Memories of which we are not consciously aware, but can be easily called into consciousness  Unconscious: Instincts, wishes and desires that direct all behaviors

5 3 Part Model of Personality  Id Pleasure principle Pleasure principle Instinctual Instinctual  Ego Reality principle Reality principle Mediator between id and superego Mediator between id and superego  Superego Morality principle Morality principle Conscience Conscience Ego ideal: Moral ideal for a behavior to which a person should strive Ego ideal: Moral ideal for a behavior to which a person should strive

6 Anxiety  Feeling of fear and dread w/o an objective cause Reality: Fear of tangible dangers in the real world Reality: Fear of tangible dangers in the real world Neurotic: Conflict b/t id and ego Neurotic: Conflict b/t id and ego Moral: Conflict b/t id and superego Moral: Conflict b/t id and superego

7 Defense Mechanisms  Function: Used by ego to defend against anxiety  Involves distortion of reality  Operate unconsciously

8 Defense Mechanisms  Repression  Denial  Reaction Formation  Projection  Regression  Rationalization  Displacement  Sublimation

9 Psychosexual Stages of Development  5 Stages Oral Oral Anal Anal Phallic Phallic Latency Latency Genital Genital  Fixation: Portion of libido is stuck in 1 stage because of excessive frustration or gratification

10 Oral Stage  Birth to 1 year  Id dominates  Mouth is pleasure center  State of total dependence on caregivers

11 Anal Stage  Ages 1-3 years  External reality (toilet training) interferes with gratification received from defecation  Learn to control id impulses

12 Phallic Stage  Ages 4-5  Pleasure derived from genitals  Oedipus complex: Uncs desire of a boy for his mother, desire to replace his father Castration anxiety Castration anxiety  Electra complex: Uncs desire of a girl for her father, desire to replace her mother Penis envy Penis envy

13 Latency Period  Age 5-puberty  Structures of personality largely formed by age 5  Sexual instinct temporarily dormant

14 Genital Stage  Adolescence-adulthood  If no major fixations from earlier stages are present, the individual leads a normal life  Sexual energy finds acceptable outlets  First 5 years of life determine adult personality

15 Assessment  Free association Patient says whatever comes to mind Patient says whatever comes to mind Catharsis: Expression of emotions that is expected to lead to the reduction of disturbing symptoms Catharsis: Expression of emotions that is expected to lead to the reduction of disturbing symptoms  Dream analysis: The royal road to the uncs Manifest content Manifest content Latent content Latent content

16 Research  Case study method  Personality formed by age 5 Studies show changes over time from preschool to ages Studies show changes over time from preschool to ages Middle childhood years may be more important in adult personality (ages 7-12) Middle childhood years may be more important in adult personality (ages 7-12)  Notion of uncs well-supported  Defense mechanisms: Use simpler ones earlier in life, more complex later

17 Criticisms of Freud  Deterministic, negative view of human nature  Flaws in case study approach  Neglect of social factors in personality  Emphasis on past to neglect of present and future behavior  View of women  Ambiguous concepts

18 Contributions of Freud  Contributed to empirical study of psychology  Role of uncs in behavior  Role of childhood experiences  Defense mechanisms


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