Presentation on theme: "Personality Theory & Assessment Chapter 14 Part I"— Presentation transcript:
1 Personality Theory & Assessment Chapter 14 Part I William G. HuittPersonality TheoriesLast revised: May 2005
2 Humanistic Personality Theories Abraham MaslowEmphasized self-actualization and transcendenceFound self-actualizers to be accurate in perceiving reality, able to judge honestly and to spot quickly the fake and the dishonestCarl RogersFocus on self-worth, self-esteemUnconditional positive regard is designed to reduce threat, eliminate conditions of worth, and bring the person back into tune with his or her true selfMajor goal of psychotherapy is to enable people to open themselves up to experiences and begin to live according to their own values rather than according to the values of others in order to gain positive regard22
3 Humanistic Personality Theories Self-esteemOne source of variations in self-esteem arises from comparisons of actual to desired traitsAnother source is achievement compared to expectationsSelf-esteem is fairly stable from childhood through the late adult years with the exception of early adolescence22
4 Learning Theories and Personality Locus of controlA concept used to explain how people account for what happens in their livesinternal locus of control—people see themselves as primarily in control of their behavior and its consequencesexternal locus of control—people perceive what happens to be in the hands of fate, luck, or environment22
5 Learning Theories and Personality Social-cognitive theoryReciprocal determinismBandura’s concept that behavior, cognitive factors, and environment all influence and are influenced by each otherSelf-efficacyA person’s belief in his or her ability to perform competently in whatever is attempted22
6 Trait Theories Early trait theories Gordon Allport Raymond Cattell Claimed that each person inherits a unique set of raw materials for given traits, which are then shaped by experiencesRaymond CattellReferred to observable qualities of personality as surface traitsFound certain clusters of surface traits that appeared together time after timeBelieved these were evidence of deeper, more general, underlying personality factors, which he called source traitsCattell’s Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, commonly called the 16 PF, yields a personality profile22
7 Trait Theories Factor models of personality Five-factor Theory Surgency, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and IntellectBig FiveExtraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience (OCEAN).22
8 Trait Theories Factor models of personality Costa and McCrae Developed the NEO Personality Inventory and, more recently, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, which are used to measure the Big Five dimensions of personalityThe NEO and other measures of the Big Five are currently being used in a wide variety of personality research studies22
9 Nature, Nurture, and Personality Twin and adoption studiesMost studies have found similarity between identical twins on several personality factors, regardless of whether they are raised together or apartCorrelations similar to those for intelligenceNeurotransmitters and personalityResearchers hypothesize that genes contribute to personality through their influence on the brain’s neurotransmitter production, transport, and reuptake systemsResearchers propose that people who are emotionally unstable possess a serotonin system that is unusually sensitive to dangers and threats22
10 Nature, Nurture, and Personality Personality and cultureHofstedeAnalyzed questionnaire responses measuring the work-related values of more than 100,000 IBM employees in 53 countries around the worldFactor analysis revealed four separate dimensions related to culture and personalityRank-ordered the 53 countries on each of the four dimensions22
11 Nature, Nurture, and Personality Personality and culturePower distance—the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (such as the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.Uncertainty avoidance—a society’s tolerance for ambiguity.Individualism/collectivism—signifies a culture’s emphasis either on individuals or on social relationshipsMasculinity/femininity—the distribution of emotional roles between the sexes22
12 Nature, Nurture, and Personality CriterionPredictorsCumulative Adj. R2Neuroticism+ Uncertainty avoidance0.31+ Masculinity0.55Extraversion+ Individualism0.39– Masculinity0.46Openness to experience0.13– Power distance0.290.36Agreeableness– Uncertainty avoidance0.28Conscientiousness+ Power distance0.24Source: Hofstede, G., & McCrae, R. (2004). Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture Cross-Cultural Research, 38(1):22
13 Personality Assessment Projective testsA personality test in which people respond to inkblots, drawings of ambiguous human situations, incomplete sentences, and the like, by projecting their own inner thoughts, feelings, fears, and conflicts onto the test materialsBased on the assumption that the test taker will transfer (“project”) unconscious conflicts and motives onto an ambiguous stimulus.
14 The Rorschach Inkblot Test Ambiguous stimuliPerson is asked to report what they seeFigure 15-3 from:Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Sample Rorschach Card
15 Thematic Apperception Test Person is asked to tell a story about the “hero” in the pictureBased on Murray’s personality theoryPeople are distinguished by the needs that motivate their behaviorFigure 15-4 from:Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
16 Personality Assessment Observation, interviews, and rating scalesUsing an observational technique known as behavioral assessment, psychologists can count and record the frequency of particular behaviorsUseful because they provide a standardized format, including a list of traits or behaviors to evaluate22
17 Personality Assessment Personality inventoriesA paper-and-pencil test with questions about a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, which can be scored according to a standard procedureMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)An inventory for classifying personality types based on Jung’s theory of personality22
18 Personality Assessment Personality inventoriesMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)The most extensively researched and widely used personality testUsed to screen and diagnose psychiatric problems and disordersOriginally published in 1943MMPI-2 was published in 1989Does not reveal differences among normal personalities very well22
20 Personality Assessment Personality inventoriesNEO PI-R™ (240 items)considered by many psychologists to be the best inventory for measuring traits within the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personalityInternational Personality Item Pool (IPIP)22
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