Psychodynamic Theories Personality is the result of unconscious motivations and conflicts. Sigmund Freud Carl Jung Alfred Adler Karen Horney Erik Erikson
Jung’s 2 Levels of the Unconscious Personal unconscious: contains the individual’s repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas Collective unconscious: the part of the unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species
Jung’s 2 General Attitude Types Extrovert: One who focuses more on social life and the external world instead of his/her own thoughts and feelings. : Introvert: One who focuses on his/her own thoughts and feelings.
Humanistic Personality Theory Any personality theory that asserts the fundamental goodness of people and their striving toward higher levels of functioning.
Cognitive-Social Learning Theories Behavior is viewed as the product of the interaction of cognitions, learning and past experiences, and the immediate environment.
Bandura’s Contribution What a person anticipates in a situation or as a result of behaving in certain ways. The expectancy that one’s efforts will be successful. Standards that people develop to rate the adequacy of their own behavior in a variety of situations.
Psychological Testing Measure personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values. Usually measured as a single score. Objective Tests: Participants is aware Feelings, attitudes, beliefs Asking questions directly Projective Tests: Participants are unaware Unconscious feelings Examples: Rorschach Test, Draw a Person, Play Therapy, Draw-A- Person, Sentence Completion
Popular Personality Tests Aims to describe aspects of a person's character that remain stable throughout that person's lifetime, the individual's character pattern of behavior, thoughts, and feelings. Examples: Woodworth Personal Data Sheet (1919)-used to screen army recruits. Rorschach Inkblot Test (1921) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT-1930’s) MMPI (1942)-aids in detection of psychopathology in a clinical setting. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator-Based on Carl Jung’s psychological types. Keirsey Temperament Sorter 16PF Questionnaire (1940’s-1950’s)-Developed by Raymond Cattell.
Psychological Testing Psychological testing categories: Achievement and aptitude Intelligence Neuropsychological Occupational Personality Specific Clinical Justification for using tests: It is easier to get information from tests than by clinical interview. The information from tests is more scientifically consistent than the information from a clinical interview. It is harder to get away with lying on a test than an interview.
Raymond B. Cattell There are five main clusters of personality traits (The big Five) Extroversion versus introversion (outgoing or shy) Neuroticism versus emotional stability (how much does a person suffer from anxiety) Agreeableness versus antagonism (good natured or irritable, cooperative or abrasive) Conscientiousness versus impulsiveness (responsible or undependable) Openness to experience versus resistance to new experience (curious, imaginative or unimaginative)