Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait. Chapter 2 Conceptual frameworks for spatial analysis.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: " Chapter 2 Conceptual frameworks for spatial analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Conceptual frameworks for spatial analysis

2 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com2 The geospatial perspective A distinct perspective on the world Domain of geospatial analysis Dealing with what happens where Human computer interface

3 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com3 Basic primitives: Place Terrestrial scale - shape and size Naming of places Dynamics Need for rigour – coordinate systems and datums 2D vs 3D perspectives on geospatial issues

4 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com4 Basic primitives: Attributes Characteristics associated with place Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio and Cyclical scales Spatial intensive measures Spatial extensive measures

5 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com5 Basic primitives: Attributes Attribute tables

6 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com6 Basic primitives: Objects Points Lines Areas Representative points Polylines Polygons

7 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com7 Basic primitives: Maps Communicating with maps Traditional maps Digital mapping Alternative visualisations – 3D and dynamic

8 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com8 Basic primitives: Multiple properties Multiple properties of place Concept of layers Combining layers Resolving modelling and geocoding differences

9 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com9 Basic primitives: Fields Discrete-object view Continuous-field view Data modelling as a form of representation Conversion between model views

10 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com10 Basic primitives: Spatial weights Adjacency models Proximity – distance based Spatial weights matrices, W

11 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com11 Basic primitives: Networks Basic components of a network Forms of network Concept of network topology Applications of network analysis

12 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com12 Basic primitives: Density Density as object count (n) divided by area (a), so d=n/a Density as link between discrete and continuous model views Sensitivity to definition of both n and a

13 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com13 Basic primitives: detail, resolution, scale Intrinsic complexity of the real world Spatial resolution Representative fraction Resolution and digital datasets Temporal resolution

14 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com14 Basic primitives: Topology General concepts of topology Topological dimension Adjacency Connectivity Containment

15 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com15 Spatial relationships: Overview Invariance and displacement Translation/displacement, rotation, reflection Relative positioning Co-location Overlay Intersection and Union Co-located or proximal?

16 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com16 Spatial relationships: Distance & direction Location and distance/direction calculations Representative points Direction and circular measure Spatial weights matrices Determination of weights: binary and real- valued Reconstruction and MDS

17 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com17 Spatial relationships: Context Spatial context and proximity Neighbourhoods Uniform distance Zonal Weighted … Heterogeneity

18 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com18 Spatial relationships: Dependence Spatial dependence and Toblers 1 st Law Spatial autocorrelation Correlograms Geostatistics

19 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com19 Spatial relationships: Sampling & interpolation Point sampling Systematic Random Stratified Zonal sampling and statistics Fields and interpolation

20 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com20 Spatial relationships: Smoothing & sharpening Convolution 1 st -order processes 2 nd -order processes Pattern and process Filtering

21 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com21 Spatial statistics: Probability & uncertainty Probability in a spatial context Marginal vs Joint probability Probability fields Probability and uncertainty Probability density Uncertainty and error propagation Uncertainty and accuracy

22 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com22 Spatial statistics: Inference Statistical inference and significance Confidence Controlled experiments Natural experiments Sampling & independence Samples vs populations

23 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com23 Spatial data infrastructure Agencies and standards Geoportals Metadata Interoperability

Download ppt " Chapter 2 Conceptual frameworks for spatial analysis."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google