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1 Chapter 3 Methodological context

2 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com2 Spatial analysis as a process Problem formulation Data gathering Exploratory analysis Hypothesis formulation Modelling and testing Consultation and review Reporting and implementation

3 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com3 Analytical methodologies Mitchell (2005) Draper et al (2005)

4 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com4 Analytical methodologies - PPDAC After Mackay & Oldford (2002)

5 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com5 PPDAC Views spatial analysis in a broader context Model is highly iterative Analysis is just part of the process Considers the process flow in reverse Spatial is special – extending the PPDAC methodology …

6 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com6 PPDAC Extended PPDAC for spatial analysis Spatial focus – spatial relationships and spatial dependence Spatio-temporal focus Failure to meet classical statistical criteria Pattern and process relationship Spatial data sourcing and quality

7 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com7 PPDAC – Problem phase Problem definition Clear definition of problem/project and (client) expectations is paramount Desk research as part of initial process Identification of specific spatial issues: spatial (and statistical) scale factors spatial arrangement factors data availability and quality spatial grouping issues ecological fallacy, atomistic fallacy

8 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com8 PPDAC – Plan phase Nature of project Costing requirements Decision-support requirements Public participation issues Operational requirements Timing and critical dates Funding and resourcing Feasibility and risk analysis Client expectations

9 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com9 PPDAC – Plan phase – cont. Specifications and standards Data components required Data sourcing and augmenting Sampling, populations and inference Adopting multiple approaches Seeking robustness Testing/simulating the process flow Handling exceptions & rare events Re-examining the problem specification

10 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com10 PPDAC – Data phase Data quality & sourcing issues Quality Cost Licensing Availability Completeness & consistency Timeliness Detail/resolution Intangible/qualitative data

11 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com11 PPDAC – Data phase Data quality & GIS tools - examples Boundary definition and density computation Missing data handling and masking Classification Data transformation Breakline handling Error mapping Simulation

12 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com12 PPDAC – Data phase Changing context Spatial Data Infrastructures Geoportals Metadata New data capture tools Changes in data visualisation & usage Interdisciplinary nature of geospatial analysis

13 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com13 PPDAC – Analysis Phase Simplicity and parsimony Exploratory analysis & visualisation Interpretation of spatial patterns Construction of hypotheses Build-test-criticise model cycle Developing preliminary conclusions Match to expectations?

14 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com14 PPDAC – Analysis Phase Types of model Mathematical/Statistical models Cartographic modeling Flow models Micro-scale modeling... etc

15 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com15 PPDAC – Analysis Phase Simple dynamic cartographic model

16 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com16 PPDAC – Analysis Phase Sample risk assessment model output

17 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com17 PPDAC – Conclusion Phase Expectations on delivery met? Simplicity again Clear/high quality visualisation Identify and report strengths, weaknesses and possible sources of error Recommendations Future actions

18 3 rd editionwww.spatialanalysisonline.com18 PPDAC – Final comments Work through and specify each model step before commencing – test out ideas Identify risk areas and revisit PPDAC elements as required Confirm overall programme and deliverables with client Manage risks and changes

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