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Methodological context

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Presentation on theme: "Methodological context"— Presentation transcript:

1 Methodological context
Chapter 3 Methodological context

2 Spatial analysis as a process
Problem formulation Data gathering Exploratory analysis Hypothesis formulation Modelling and testing Consultation and review Reporting and implementation 3rd edition

3 Analytical methodologies
Mitchell (2005) Draper et al (2005) 3rd edition

4 Analytical methodologies - PPDAC
After Mackay & Oldford (2002) 3rd edition

5 PPDAC Views spatial analysis in a broader context
Model is highly iterative Analysis is just part of the process Considers the process flow in reverse Spatial is special – extending the PPDAC methodology … 3rd edition

6 PPDAC Extended PPDAC for spatial analysis
Spatial focus – spatial relationships and spatial dependence Spatio-temporal focus Failure to meet classical statistical criteria Pattern and process relationship Spatial data sourcing and quality 3rd edition

7 PPDAC – Problem phase Problem definition
Clear definition of problem/project and (client) expectations is paramount Desk research as part of initial process Identification of specific spatial issues: spatial (and statistical) scale factors spatial arrangement factors data availability and quality spatial grouping issues ecological fallacy, atomistic fallacy 3rd edition

8 PPDAC – Plan phase Nature of project Costing requirements
Decision-support requirements Public participation issues Operational requirements Timing and critical dates Funding and resourcing Feasibility and risk analysis Client expectations 3rd edition

9 PPDAC – Plan phase – cont.
Specifications and standards Data components required Data sourcing and augmenting Sampling, populations and inference Adopting multiple approaches Seeking robustness Testing/simulating the process flow Handling exceptions & rare events Re-examining the problem specification 3rd edition

10 PPDAC – Data phase Data quality & sourcing issues Quality Cost
Licensing Availability Completeness & consistency Timeliness Detail/resolution Intangible/qualitative data 3rd edition

11 PPDAC – Data phase Data quality & GIS tools - examples
Boundary definition and density computation Missing data handling and masking Classification Data transformation Breakline handling Error mapping Simulation 3rd edition

12 PPDAC – Data phase Changing context Spatial Data Infrastructures
Geoportals Metadata New data capture tools Changes in data visualisation & usage Interdisciplinary nature of geospatial analysis 3rd edition

13 PPDAC – Analysis Phase Simplicity and parsimony
Exploratory analysis & visualisation Interpretation of spatial patterns Construction of hypotheses Build-test-criticise ‘model’ cycle Developing preliminary conclusions Match to expectations? 3rd edition

14 PPDAC – Analysis Phase Types of model Mathematical/Statistical models
Cartographic modeling Flow models Micro-scale modeling... etc 3rd edition

15 PPDAC – Analysis Phase Simple dynamic cartographic model 3rd edition

16 PPDAC – Analysis Phase Sample risk assessment model output 3rd edition

17 PPDAC – Conclusion Phase
Expectations on delivery met? Simplicity again Clear/high quality visualisation Identify and report strengths, weaknesses and possible sources of error Recommendations Future actions 3rd edition

18 PPDAC – Final comments Work through and specify each model step before commencing – test out ideas Identify risk areas and revisit PPDAC elements as required Confirm overall programme and deliverables with ‘client’ Manage risks and changes 3rd edition

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