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Nutrition and Your Personal Fitness

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1 Nutrition and Your Personal Fitness
Chapter 4 Nutrition and Your Personal Fitness

2 The Importance of Nutrition Lesson 1
Healthful eating Nutrients are substance in food that your body needs for energy, proper growth, body maintenance, and functioning. Influences and Your food Choices Hunger Culture Family & friends Emotions Convenience and cost advertising

3 What is the difference between hunger & appetite?
Hunger is natural, inborn drive that protects from starvation. Appetite is a personal desire, rather than a need. It is psychological, not physical.

4 Nutrients for Energy Carbohydrates – 4 calories per gram
Bodies main source of energy Proteins – 4 calories per gram Build, maintain, and repair body tissues (muscle) Fats – 9 calories per gram Most concentrated form of energy and helps transport other nutrients (fat soluble vitamins)(A,D,E,K)

5 Carbohydrates 4 calories per gram
Simple carbohydrates (simple sugars) Breaks down very quickly Fruits, candy, cookies, soda Complex carbohydrates Broken down more slowly Starches Certain vegetables (corn, broccoli, potatoes) Breads, cereals, pasta, rice, dry beans *dietary fiber-aids in digestion & reduces the risk of colon cancer. 36 grams – Females & 38 grams Males

6 Protein 4 calories per gram
Muscles are made up of 20% protein & 70% water. Helps build & repair muscles Helps fight disease Provides some energy Amino acids – building blocks of proteins 22 different types Body manufactures all but 9 9 are called essential nutrients, because you must get them from foods you eat. Most people need between 10% - 35% of daily calories

7 Complete & Incomplete Proteins
Compete Proteins Contain all 9 essential amino acids Examples: animal products – meats & dairy Incomplete Proteins Except soybeans, all plant foods Vegetarians Eliminate meat, fish and poultry from diet Vegans Same as vegetarians, but also eliminate eggs and dairy

8 Fats 9 calories per gram Twice the energy of carbs & proteins
Transport and absorbs vitamins A,D,E,K Regulates testosterone Enhances flavor of food Satisfies hunger – longer to digest

9 Types of fat Saturated fatty acids Trans fatty acids
Mainly from animal fats Butter, lard Solid at room temperature Trans fatty acids Formed when certain oils are processed into solids Margarine & shortening Listed on labels as “partially hydrogenated” Unsaturated fatty acids Liquid at room temperature Mainly from plant sources Examples: corn oil, soybean oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, fish oil

10 Cholesterol Low density lipoprotein (LDL) usually from your diet
“bad” Compound that carries cholesterol from liver Excess can build in the arteries Increases the risk of heart disease or stroke High density lipoprotein (HDL) made in your body Compound that picks up excess cholesterol & takes it to the liver “good”

11 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Lesson 2
Micronutrients – nutrients needed in small amounts vitamins minerals

12 Vitamins control body processes & help body release energy
Fat-soluble carried by fat in your body Can be stored Water-soluble Not stored in your body, need to be replaced daily

13 Antioxidants- vitamins C & E protect body cells from damage
Cells damaged from: Cell energy production Environmental factors: Smoking Air pollution Protect cells from injury, reduce the risk of: Cancer, heart disease, premature aging

14 Minerals body cannot manufacture, but needed for healthy bones, teeth and regulating body processes. Iron Part of the hemoglobin in red blood cells Carries oxygen from the lungs to all the cells Calcium, Potassium & Sodium Electrolytes maintain normal heart rhythm Control body’s fluid balance

15 Water Important because: Body needs 64 ounces (8 cups) a day
Regulates body temperature Carries nutrients Aids in digestion & elimination Helps with chemical reactions in body Body needs 64 ounces (8 cups) a day Body is between percent water Essential for life – without it, death will occur in 6-7 days

16 Phytonutrients “Plant Nutrients”
Health promoting substances found in plant foods Lutein – protects against blindness Yellow-orange fruits (mangoes, peaches, tangerines, yellow & red bell peppers) Kale, spinach, collard greens Beta carotene orange foods (carrots, cantaloupe, sweet potatoes)

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