4 Fiction Fiction = A story from an authors imagination. Two Forms 1.Short StoryCan easily be read in one sittingExplores one topic2.NovelHas a longer more complicated plot
5 4 Components of Fiction Plot = Characters = Setting = Theme = The events of the storyCharacters =The people, animals, or imaginary characters in the storySetting =The time and place where the story occurs.Theme =The main message in the story.
7 WHAT IS NONFICTION? The subject of nonfiction is real The author writes about actual persons, places and events.The writer may just report factsThe writer may also include personal opinionsOften there is a mixture of bothReaders must read critically
8 CRITICAL READING Look at writer’s background Look at writer’s purpose Look at writer’s attitudeLook at writer’s audience
10 DIARIES AND JOURNALSDiaries: a private form of writing with no further intended audienceJournals: varying styles and topics. Give a glimpse of the writer’s value of his or her world
11 LETTERS Private Letters Public Letter Letters can Reveal characterExpress opinionsAsk for informationGive informationAudience and Purpose influence tone.
12 PERSONAL REFLECTIONSPersonal Reflections must be memorable and significant and :Give character insightLead to an unexpected conclusionShow how a lesson was learnedAwaken feeling of pity, compassion, joy and nostalgia
13 Biography Written about a person’s life or one main event Has a plot Can be read in one sitting or have many chaptersHistorical biographies include strands of an individual’s life interwoven with historical persons, places and events.
14 Autobiography The biography of a person written by himself or herself. Has a plotCan be read in one sitting or have many chaptersAuthor has some purpose for writingTo teachTo gain awarenessTo warnSimply to entertain
15 MEMOIRSA type of autobiographical writing, dealing with the recollections of prominent people or people who have been a part of or have witnessed significant events.Considered both autobiographical and historical.
16 Encyclopedia Information organized by topic Topics organized alphabeticallyThe entries are shortUsed for research
19 News Paper Articles Short Can be read in one sitting Articles Focuses on one topic or main idea
20 Essay Can be based on research or personal experience Can be read in one sittingWritten in paragraph form, usually five or more
21 TYPES OF ESSAYS Formal Essay A prose discussion on a serious topic in a serious manner, usually rigidly structured and organized.Informal EssayA prose discussion on any topic in a light, humorous, amusing manner; often loosely organized, rambling and casual in approach.
22 CHARACTERISTICS of an Essay The Formal EssayPurpose: to inform, explain, convinceTone: serious, rhetorical, balancedThe Informal EssayNarrative structureTone: conversational, sometimes witty and humorous
23 HUMOR AND THE ESSAY Wit Humor Incongruity The unexpected Exaggeration Ability to show, with sympathy, the things in life and human behavior that are funny.
24 OTHER TYPES OF ESSAYS Comparison and Contrast Essays Persuasive Essays Cause and Effect Essays
25 Interview Recorded word for word Can be read in one sitting May be written in bullet format or like a drama
26 Textbook Information organized by topic Used for reference to inform Organized chronologically (by time) or by topic
27 OTHER TYPES OF NONFICTION SpeechesHistorical WritingScience WritingTechnical writingWriting onlineMiscellaneous writing
28 ELEMENTS OF NONFICTION Characters, Plot, and Setting. Like fiction– but all are realPerson in autobiography or biography called a subjectPurpose – changes the style and tone of the pieceTone (author’s attitude toward the topic) -based on purpose and audience.
29 HOW TO READ NONFICTION Try to separate facts from opinions. The writer has chosen facts that present a certain picture of the subject.Think about what might be missing as well as what is there.
30 MORE READING TIPS Think about the writer's purpose. Is the writer trying to win you over to his or her opinion?Learn to appreciate how well a writer says something, even when you don't agree.Be a critical reader.
31 FINAL READING TIPS Be aware of the writer's tone. Pay attention to what the author reveals about himself or herself – especially true in autobiography