2 Nonfiction:focuses on real, rather than imaginary, subjects, (people, things, events, and places) facts rather than opinionsWriters know the importance of being clear.what they write must be of interest, or no one will want to read what they have to say
3 Facts vs. OpinionsOn average, adults watch double the amount of television that teenagers do.Adults watch too much TV.The first CD pressed in the U.S. was Bruce Springsteen’s Born in the USAThe best CD ever produced was Bruce Springsteen’s Born in the USA
4 Types of Non-FictionNarrative NonfictionInformative Nonfiction
5 Narrative NonfictionTells a story, just as fictional (made=up) stories do.Includes setting, character, theme, plot, conflictMay be told in chronological order or in flashback.
6 Informative Nonfiction Informative Nonfiction: writing that explains a topic or promotes an opinionNewspapers, journals, and reputable magazines and some websites are sources of informative non-fictionTwo types of informative non-fiction areExpositoryPersuasive
7 Types of informative nonfiction EXPOSITORYType of writing that explains, gives information, defines, or clarifies an ideaFound in news articles, in histories, in biographies, cookbooks, how-to manuals, etc.PERSUASIVEType of writing that is aimed at leading the reader or listern to rethink or act in a certain wayFound in newspaper editorials, in speeches, in certain types of essays, advice columns, movie review, etc.
8 Types of Narrative and Informative Nonfiction AutobiographyBiographyMemoirDiaryEssaySpeechInformational articles
9 AutobiographyAutobiography: story of a person’s life written by that personwritten from a 1st person point of view and based entirely on the author’s memorySubjective: proceeding from or taking place within an indicidual’s mind and unaffected by the outside worldAdvantage: reveals the motives, emotions, and fears that only the writer can know.
10 BiographyBiography: story of a person’s life written by someone other than that person, uses the third person point of viewObjective: Uninfluenced by emotion or personal prejudiceAdvantage: An outsider can tell us things about background, history, influences, of another person—things that the person may not have realized
11 MemoirMemoir: an account of an event or period in the author’s life that usually emphasizes the author’s personal experience of a particular event or time periodLike an autobiography, a memoir is told from the first-person point of view.
12 DiaryA first-person, day-to-day account of a person’s life written as it is lived
13 EssayEssay: short piece of nonfiction writing that usually deals with a single subject- Many essays share the author’s thoughts about a subject or experience.
14 Types of Essays Narrative: a nonfiction story In this short form, authors present a real time and place, real people as characters, and events that actually happened.often includes a central conflict or problem, as well as a climax and resolution (plot elements)Knowing that a literary work is a narrative essay can help you to gain historical and/or general knowledge about other people, places and events.
15 Types of Essays Personal: usually informal in their language and tone often reflect an incident in the writer’s lifeThe writer may share a life lesson, or reminisce about a past event. Descriptive: uses carefully selected details to help readers picture an object or placeWriters often use sensory details in their description to help the reader understand what something looks like, sounds like, and feels like.
16 Types of Essays (Informational nonfiction) Expository: when you write to inform, give directions, explain an idea, or make something clearPersuasive: employs techniques designed to convince an audience to think or act in a certain wayexamples of techniques:cause or effect reasoning (appeals to logic)emotionethicsauthorityA good persuasive writer anticipates the possible concerns and objectives of the audience and uses this insight to directly address possible arguments.
17 SpeechSpeech: speaker tries to influence the listener’s ideas or actions
18 Informational Article Informational Article: Provides facts about a subjectNewspaper and magazine articles, feature storiesTextbooks, pamphlets, how-to books
19 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Title: the name of a work of literatureexpresses themes, highlights important details, or points to a central character or event
20 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Author’s purpose: reason for writingmay be to entertain, to persuade, to express opinions, to describe or to inform
21 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Characterization: how the author reveals the personality of the charactersDirect characterization: author makes direct statements about a characterIndirect characterization: author reveals a character through his or her words, thoughts, and actions and through what other characters think and say about the character
22 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Historical Narrative: work of nonfiction that tells the story of important historical events or developmentspeople described have motives and writers can reveal them through their words, actions, appearances and other detailsincludes events that are usually told in chronological ordersome also include a central conflict, rising action and a resolution
23 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Narrator: person or voice that tells the storyAnecdote: a brief account of an interesting or significant circumstanceWriters often use anecdotes to illustrate their points, to get a reader’s attention, to clarify ideas or to convey a story element such as setting or rising action
24 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Author’s purpose: the author’s reason for writingThe purpose may be to persuade, to express an opinion, or to inform
25 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Tone: an author’s attitude toward his or her subject matterconveyed through elements such as word choice, punctuation, sentence structure, and figures of speechcan convey a variety of attitudes, such as sympathy, objectivity or humorthe specific tone is often related both to the type of writing and its purpose
26 Objective versus Subjective Writing Objective= facts which can be proved to be true by the senses, the calendar, or the clockexamples: the geographic location of a city, the time of daySubjective= details that may be true, but are verifiable only by reference to your own state of mindexamples: feelings about an event, description of a personword connotation (associations that affect meaning)
27 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Plot: sequence of eventsExpositionRising actionClimaxFalling actionResolution
28 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Aphorism: a short, pointed statement that expresses a wise or clever observation about human experience“To travel hopefully is better than to arrive.”- Robert Louis Stevenson
29 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Setting: the time and place in which events of a work occurIn addition to physical characteristics, setting also includes the history, customs and values of the people who live there
30 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Thesis: main idea of an essay or other work of non-fictionIt is generally stated in one or two sentencesContains a subject, and opinions, and reasons for that opinionIndentifying the thesis of a work can help you better understand the work as a wholeThe thesis may be stated directly or indirectly
31 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Structure: the particular order a writer uses to present ideas
32 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Dialogue: a conversation between characters in a literary workusually set off with quotation marks and dialogue tags, or markers that let the reader know who said what
33 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Rhetorical devices: techniques that an author uses to create particular effects or to engage the attention of the readerUse language in artistic ways that make passages more memorable as well as more persuasiveParallelismRepetition
34 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Antithesis: a contrasting relationship between two ideasAn author uses antithesis by placing contrasting ideas together, often in parallel structureMentioning two ideas next to each other highlights their differencesCan lead the reader to certain conclusions or opinions
35 Literary Elements of Nonfiction Humor: quality of a literary work that makes the characters, situations, or events seem funny or ridiculousRecognizing the author’s use of humor can help you determine how serious a selection is, as well as if it is fictional or factualOften used to point out human failings or ironies of every day lifeSarcasmExaggerationPunsVerbal irony