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Mrs. Crandall- 9th Lit/Comp. Nonfiction Pretest 1. What is nonfiction? 2. What makes a credible source? 3. What are some different forms of technical.

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Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Crandall- 9th Lit/Comp. Nonfiction Pretest 1. What is nonfiction? 2. What makes a credible source? 3. What are some different forms of technical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mrs. Crandall- 9th Lit/Comp

2 Nonfiction Pretest 1. What is nonfiction? 2. What makes a credible source? 3. What are some different forms of technical writing? 4. What is diction? 5. What are the differences between an autobiography, a biography, and a memoir? 6. What is the most widely published form of expository writing? 7. What are the different types of informational materials? 8. In rhetorical situations, ethos is an appeal to what? 9. In rhetorical situations, pathos is an appeal to what? 10. In rhetorical situations, logos is an appeal to what?

3 Nonfiction Essential Questions Why should you believe me? What makes a credible source? What makes a good leader? How can I persuade someone to see my point of view?

4 What is Nonfiction? Written works intended to give facts, or true accounts of real things and events. The author writes about actual persons, places and events. The writer may just report facts The writer may also include personal opinions Often there is a mixture of both Readers must read critically

5 Critical Reading Strategies look at writer’s background Look at writer’s purpose Look at writer’s attitude Look at writer’s audience

6 Journalism Journalism TextsTypes of Journalism Newspapers Magazines Online sources  Interviews  Columns  Reviews  Articles  Editorials  Editorial Cartoons

7 Essays FormalInformal A writing style on a serious topic in a serious manner, usually tightly prepared and organized A writing style on any topic in a light, humorous, amusing manner; often loosely organized, rambling and casual in approach

8 Other Essay Forms  Comparison and Contrast Essays  Persuasive Essays  Cause and Effect Essays

9 Personal Reflections Diaries: a private form of writing with no further intended audience Journals: varying styles and topics. Give a glimpse of the writer’s value of his or her world  Personal Reflections must be memorable and significant and :  Give character insight  Lead to an unexpected conclusion  Show how a lesson was learned  Awaken feeling of pity, compassion, joy and nostalgia

10 Autobiography Written by the subject for publication Author has some purpose for writing  To teach  To arouse awareness  To warn  Simply to entertain


12 Biography The accurate presentation of a life story from birth to death of an individual. Historical biographies include strands of an individual’s life interwoven with historical persons, places and events.

13 Other Forms of Nonfiction Speeches – oral; used to persuade or inform (often through use of rhetoric) How-to manual- most widely published form of expository writing Encyclopedia/Dictionary Technical Text Expository- nonfiction document used to explain or inform

14 Speeches to be Examined  The New Frontier” ~John F. Kennedy  “I Have a Dream” ~Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

15 What is Rhetoric? The art or study of using language effectively and persuasively Origin- Ancient Greece  Ethos- appeal to credibility, beliefs  Logos- appeal to logic  Pathos- appeal to emotions

16 Logos  Reason (logos) - support your general claims with concrete, specific data.  Reason which begins with specifics and moves toward a generalization is inductive. Example: Several clubs have reported difficulty completing their business during lunch period. This proves that lunch periods should be longer.  Reason which starts with a general observation and moves to specifics is deductive. Example: When people hurry, inefficiency and poor communication are the results. Under current conditions clubs must hurry at lunch time meetings. Therefore, lunch period should be lengthened to allow for better club meetings.

17 Logos Continued…  Use two or three different strong reasons to support your argument.  Support your reasons with evidence.  Facts - can be proven.  Expert opinions or quotations  Definitions - statement of meaning of word or phrase  Statistics - offer scientific support  Examples - powerful illustrations  Anecdote - incident, often based on writer's personal experiences  Present opposition - and give reasons and evidence to prove the opposition wrong  Conclude with call to action - urge the reader to do something

18 Ethos  Ethics (ethos) - convince your readers that you are fair, honest, and well informed. They will then trust your values and intentions.  Avoid over-use of negatively charged loaded words.

19 Pathos  Emotion (pathos) - a carefully reasoned argument will be strengthened by an emotional appeal.  Use description or narrate an example, often from your own experience.  Your point of view is demonstrated in an emotional appeal, and is important to the reader.  Careful word choice presents your position accurately.

20 How to Build a Strong Argument  Introduction - establish your argument, and clarify the importance of the issue.  Statement of the Case - tell story behind the argument, offering background information  Proposition Statement - carefully state central proposition, as a thesis statement would be given  Refutation - refute opposition arguments, exposing faulty reasoning  Confirmation - develop your case, using examples, facts, statistics (logos)  Digression - appealing anecdote or description, offering ethos or pathos  Conclusion - finish with strong conviction; review main points, or suggest call to action

21 Tips for Reading Nonfiction Try to separate Facts from Opinions. The writer has chosen facts that present a certain picture of the subject. Think about what might be missing as well as what is there Think about the writer's purpose. Is the writer trying to win you over to his or her opinion? Learn to appreciate how well a writer says something, even when you don't agree. Be a critical reader. Be aware of the writer's tone. Frequently a writer reveals much about himself or herself by the tone he or she uses. This is especially important in autobiographical writing

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