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Chapter 4, Section 3 The Middle and New Kingdoms

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1 Chapter 4, Section 3 The Middle and New Kingdoms

2 The Middle Kingdom At the end of the Old Kingdom, the wealth and power of the pharaohs declined. Wealthy nobles challenged the power of the pharaohs. By 2200 BC, the Old Kingdom had fallen and for the next 160 years the local nobles ruled much of Egypt. There was no central ruler.

3 Middle Kingdom Finally, around 2050 BC, a powerful pharaoh came to rule. His rule was the beginning of the Middle Kingdom which lasted to about 1750 BC. At this time a powerful group from the Southwest Asia, called the Hyksos, invaded Egypt with chariots, horses, and advanced weapons. They conquered Lower Egypt. They ruled for about 200 years.

4 Ahmose In the mid-1500s BC, Ahmose of Thebes declared himself king and drove the Hyksos out of Egypt. He lived 35 to 40 years and was about 5 ft. 4 in. tall. His rise to power marked the beginning of the 18th Dynasty, the New Kingdom, which lasted from about BC. Pharaohs became wealthy during the New Kingdom

5 Building an Empire Fort at Buhen Cataract 1 The Egyptians were afraid they may be conquered again. They strengthened their armies and invaded Southwest Asia and Kush, and Nubia, South of Egypt. Because of their military conquests, Egypt became very wealthy.

6 Growth Affects Trade Egypt’s trade expanded along with its empire.
What is a trade route? It is a path or route followed by traders. Egypt traded with distant lands for gold, turquoise, copper, and wood. Egypt became wealthy because of trade with other countries.

7 Queen Hatshepsut Hatshepsut reigned from 1503-1482 BC
She worked to increase Egyptian trade. Egyptian pharaohs used the money from trade to build beautiful monuments and temples. Her beautiful temple in Thebes

8 Invasions of Egypt Ramses the Great was a famous pharaoh who ruled for many years. He was over 90 years old when he died. He was a great warrior who fought the Hittites. After he died, Egypt lost power and was invaded by the Sea Peoples. Historians are not sure who they were. They fought Egypt for over 50 years. Finally, the Egyptians prevailed. Ramses The Great

9 Work and Daily Life A complex society requires people to take on different jobs. In Egypt, these jobs were usually passed on within families. At a young age, boys started to learn their future jobs from their fathers.

10 Other than priests and government officials, no one in Egypt was more honored than scribes.
Members of the middle class, they worked for the government or temples keeping records or copying religious and literary texts. Because they were so respected, scribes did not have to pay taxes, and many became wealthy. Scribes

11 Other jobs that required advanced skills were artisans…sculptors, builders, carpenters, jewelers, metalworkers, and leatherworkers. They worked for the government or for temples. Most artisans were paid well for their work. They made statues, furniture, shoes, jewelry, pottery, and other items. Artisans Queen Hatshepsut carved in granite Beautiful golden ring

12 Artists Artists were also admired in Egypt. They were often employed by the government or temples. Many worked in the deep burial chambers of the pharaoh’s tombs painting detailed pictures.

13 Architects Architects designed the temples and royal tombs for which Egypt is famous. Talented architects could become high government officials.

14 Merchants and Traders Only a small group of Egyptians became merchants and traders. Some traveled long distances to buy and sell goods. Merchants were usually accompanied by soldiers, scribes, and laborers on their travels. It was a dangerous job. Sailing boats helped transport goods Gold from Nubia

15 Egypt created a professional army after the wars of the Middle Kingdom
Egypt created a professional army after the wars of the Middle Kingdom. The military offered people a chance to rise in social status. Soldiers received land as payment and could keep any treasures they captured in war. Those that excelled could become officers. Soldiers

16 These hard working people were toward the bottom of the social scale
These hard working people were toward the bottom of the social scale. They made up a vast majority of the population. Farmers grew most of the crops for Egypt’s people. They also had to give crops to the pharaoh as taxes. These taxes were intended to pay the pharaoh for the use of his land. In Egypt, the pharaoh controlled all of the land. Farmers

17 Peasants All peasants, including
Farmers, were also subject to special duty. Under Egyptian law, the pharaoh could demand at any time that people work on projects, such as building pyramids, mining gold, or fighting in the army. The government paid the workers in grain.

18 Slaves The few slaves in Egypt were considered lower than farmers. Many were convicted criminals or prisoners captured in war. They worked on farm, on projects, and in households. Egyptian slaves had some legal rights, and in some cases could earn their freedom.

19 Family Life in Egypt Family life was important. Most Egyptian families lived in their own home. Women were devoted to their homes and families. Some served as priestesses, royal officials, administrators, and artisans. They also had a number of legal rights. They could own property, make contracts, and divorce their husbands.

20 Children played with toys such as dolls, tops, and clay animals
Children played with toys such as dolls, tops, and clay animals. They also played ball games, and hunted. Most children, boys and girls received some education. At school they learned morals, writing, math and sports. At age 14 most boys left school to enter their father’s profession. Girls worked in the home with their mothers. More Family Life

21 Summary Pharaohs faced many challenges to their rule. After defeating the Hyksos, the kingdom expanded in land and wealth. People in Egypt worked at many different jobs.

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