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Study Guide: Egypt and Kush

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1 Study Guide: Egypt and Kush

2 What was the geographic location and noteworthy physical features of ancient Egypt ?

3 Egypt was the Gift of the Nile ( longest river in world) located in NE Africa: had protective cataracts, and a fertile delta The Nile flows south to north

4 Nile floods on a regular cycle: upper Egypt in mid summer, lower Egypt in fall 2/3 of farmland is in the delta area; desert surrounds other land

5 Rich silted land from flood = black land, desert beyond river valley = red land

6 River provided irrigation water, fish, sailing

7 Desert too harsh for enemies, Med Sea kept many away, cataracts stopped enemies from south

8 How did ancient Egyptians manage to become a civilization ?

9 Rich fertile land gave rise to farming, surplus, diversification of labor, greater pop, control of river water with canals; with larger population organized govt developed and a shared and well developed culture was seen.

10 Describe the two kingdoms that existed in Egypt before they were a united Kingdom .

11 Upper ( southern) on west bank of Nile; white crown in cone shape

12 Lower (northern) Northwest Delta; red crown

13 What were the important cultural features of the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdoms of ancient Egypt ?

14 Old: govt developed pharaohs as both King and a god- he came to earth to manage Egypt for all the gods Khfu best known because of monuments for him(pyramid) Society: Pharoah, priests and govt officials (mostly nobles, rich and powerful families) Middle Class = scribes and craftspeople, lesser govt officials;Lower Class – 80% people and mostly farmers – worked on pharaoh projects in off season. Slaves and servants Trade with Nubia and Suria – materials for building Religion: all worship same gods, tons of them too, temples built and they collected $ from worshippers and govt. Pyramids as burial sites very important Idea of afterlife important

15 Middle: time after a decline of pharaoh power with nobles ruling but ineffectively –pharaoh comes back into power; invaded by Hykos – they rule, but Ahmose drives them out

16 New Kingdom: height of power
Controlled invasion routes, built an empire ; extended from Euphraetes to Nubia – those neighboring send gifts to maintain good relations. Expanded trade Queen Hatshepsut – trade and monuments and temples Invasions led to decline Ramses the Great fought off many enemies Labor: scribes, artisans, artists, architects, merchants, traders, soldiers, farmers and peasants

17 Who were significant leaders of ancient Egypt and what were their lasting legacies ?

18 Khufu – pyramid Hatsheput – increased trade Ramses – fought invasions, massive monuments

19 Menes: unites Upper and Lower Egypt – from Upper; 1st Pharaoh, and first dynasty; extended territory south

20 What were the religious beliefs and rituals of ancient Egyptians ?

21 Many gods, afterlife Ka must be preserved

22 What societal groups lived in ancient Egypt and how were they employed ?

23 Scribes govt and temple records

24 B. Artisans, Artists, and Architects
1. sculptors builders, carpenters, jewelers metalworkers and leatherworkers 2. statues, furniture, jewelry, pottery, shoes 3. architects designed temples and royal tombs a. could become high govt officials

25 C. Merchants and Traders
1. few, accompanied by soldiers, scribes and laborers

26 D. Soldiers 1. After Middle Kingdom wars E had professional
army 2. land as payment 3. keep treasure captured in warj

27 E. Farmers and Other Peasants
1. bottom of social scale 2. majority of pop 3. crops as taxes to pharaoh to pay for land use a. pharaohs controlled all land in kingdom

28 F. Slaves 4. required for special duty too 1. most equal to farmers
a. soldier b. projects c. mining d. paid in grain F. Slaves 1. most equal to farmers 2. convicted criminals 3. pows 4. projects, farms, workshops , households 5. had some rights and could earn freedom in some cases

29 What were the most memorable achievements of ancient Egyptians ?

30 Arch Hieroglyphics Papyrus Books and histories written Temples, sphinx Painting – profile and straight on Carvings and jewelry

31 What led to the decline of ancient Egyptian civilization ?

32 Over taxing, invasions, not connected enough to all in empire

33 What were the similarities of Kush and Egypt ?

34 Located along a river whose flood brought silt and fertile land to farm ( Nile)
Cataracts were natural barrier Rose from farming villages Diversification of labor

35 What were the political, commercial and cultural relations interactions and influences between Kush and Egypt ?

36 Kush supplied slaves and raw materials to Egypt
Egypt controls when Thumose invades Kush then controls Egypt – but reestablishes much of Egyptian culture Kush defeated by Assyrians in Egypt Kush rebuilt own civilization built iron industry, expanded trade, very much in Egyptian stlye ; resources declined, trade weakened, military weakened lead to decline

37 Cataracts = rapids

38 Vocabulary

39 Delta = triangular shaped land from deposited river soil

40 Menes = 1st pharaoh, dynasty, united Egypt

41 Pharaoh = god king

42 Dynasty = series of rulers from same dynasty

43 Old Kingdom – 3rd period dynasty rise

44 Khufu – famous new kingdom pharoah

45 Nobles –rich and powerful

46 Afterlife – life after death

47 Mummies – specially treated bodies after embalmment; linen wrapped

48 Elite –people of wealth and power

49 Pyramids – 4sided burial tombs

50 Engineering –science for practical matters

51 Middle Kingdom – after New Ahmose King

52 New Kingdom – period of greatest achievement

53 Trade routes – paths of traders

54 Queen Hatshepsut – New Kingdom – many public works

55 Ramses the Great – great military leader and King; New Kingdom

56 Hieroglyphics- writing system of ancient Egypt

57 Papyrus – paper in ancient Egypt from plant fiber

58 Rosetta Stone- discovery that unlocked key to hieroglyphics

59 Sphinxes – body of lion and heads of animals or human temple

60 Obelisk -4 sided pillar on side on monuments

61 King Tutakhamen – discovered tomb of the boy king

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