7Desert too harsh for enemies, Med Sea kept many away, cataracts stopped enemies from south
8How did ancient Egyptians manage to become a civilization ?
9Rich fertile land gave rise to farming, surplus, diversification of labor, greater pop, control of river water with canals; with larger population organized govt developed and a shared and well developed culture was seen.
10Describe the two kingdoms that existed in Egypt before they were a united Kingdom .
11Upper ( southern) on west bank of Nile; white crown in cone shape
13What were the important cultural features of the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdoms of ancient Egypt ?
14Old: govt developed pharaohs as both King and a god- he came to earth to manage Egypt for all the godsKhfu best known because of monuments for him(pyramid)Society: Pharoah, priests and govt officials (mostly nobles, rich and powerful families)Middle Class = scribes and craftspeople, lesser govt officials;Lower Class – 80% people and mostly farmers – worked on pharaoh projects in off season. Slaves and servantsTrade with Nubia and Suria – materials for buildingReligion: all worship same gods, tons of them too, temples built and they collected $ from worshippers and govt.Pyramids as burial sites very importantIdea of afterlife important
15Middle: time after a decline of pharaoh power with nobles ruling but ineffectively –pharaoh comes back into power; invaded by Hykos – they rule, but Ahmose drives them out
16New Kingdom: height of power Controlled invasion routes, built an empire ; extended from Euphraetes to Nubia – those neighboring send gifts to maintain good relations.Expanded tradeQueen Hatshepsut – trade and monuments and templesInvasions led to declineRamses the Great fought off many enemiesLabor: scribes, artisans, artists, architects, merchants, traders, soldiers, farmers and peasants
17Who were significant leaders of ancient Egypt and what were their lasting legacies ?
24B. Artisans, Artists, and Architects 1. sculptors builders, carpenters, jewelersmetalworkers and leatherworkers2. statues, furniture, jewelry, pottery, shoes3. architects designed temples and royal tombsa. could become high govt officials
25C. Merchants and Traders 1. few, accompanied by soldiers, scribes andlaborers
26D. Soldiers 1. After Middle Kingdom wars E had professional army2. land as payment3. keep treasure captured in warj
27E. Farmers and Other Peasants 1. bottom of social scale2. majority of pop3. crops as taxes to pharaoh to pay for land usea. pharaohs controlled all land in kingdom
28F. Slaves 4. required for special duty too 1. most equal to farmers a. soldierb. projectsc. miningd. paid in grainF. Slaves1. most equal to farmers2. convicted criminals3. pows4. projects, farms, workshops , households5. had some rights and could earn freedomin some cases
29What were the most memorable achievements of ancient Egyptians ?
30ArchHieroglyphicsPapyrusBooks and histories writtenTemples, sphinxPainting – profile and straight onCarvings and jewelry
31What led to the decline of ancient Egyptian civilization ?
32Over taxing, invasions, not connected enough to all in empire
34Located along a river whose flood brought silt and fertile land to farm ( Nile) Cataracts were natural barrierRose from farming villagesDiversification of labor
35What were the political, commercial and cultural relations interactions and influences between Kush and Egypt ?
36Kush supplied slaves and raw materials to Egypt Egypt controls when Thumose invadesKush then controls Egypt – but reestablishes much of Egyptian cultureKush defeated by Assyrians in EgyptKush rebuilt own civilization built iron industry, expanded trade, very much in Egyptian stlye ; resources declined, trade weakened, military weakened lead to decline