Desert too harsh for enemies, Med Sea kept many away, cataracts stopped enemies from south
How did ancient Egyptians manage to become a civilization ?
Rich fertile land gave rise to farming, surplus, diversification of labor, greater pop, control of river water with canals; with larger population organized govt developed and a shared and well developed culture was seen.
Describe the two kingdoms that existed in Egypt before they were a united Kingdom.
Upper ( southern) on west bank of Nile; white crown in cone shape
What were the important cultural features of the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdoms of ancient Egypt ?
Old: govt developed pharaohs as both King and a god- he came to earth to manage Egypt for all the gods Khfu best known because of monuments for him(pyramid) Society: Pharoah, priests and govt officials (mostly nobles, rich and powerful families) Middle Class = scribes and craftspeople, lesser govt officials;Lower Class – 80% people and mostly farmers – worked on pharaoh projects in off season. Slaves and servants Trade with Nubia and Suria – materials for building Religion: all worship same gods, tons of them too, temples built and they collected $ from worshippers and govt. –Pyramids as burial sites very important –Idea of afterlife important
Middle: time after a decline of pharaoh power with nobles ruling but ineffectively – pharaoh comes back into power; invaded by Hykos – they rule, but Ahmose drives them out
New Kingdom: height of power –Controlled invasion routes, built an empire ; extended from Euphraetes to Nubia – those neighboring send gifts to maintain good relations. –Expanded trade –Queen Hatshepsut – trade and monuments and temples –Invasions led to decline –Ramses the Great fought off many enemies –Labor: scribes, artisans, artists, architects, merchants, traders, soldiers, farmers and peasants
Who were significant leaders of ancient Egypt and what were their lasting legacies ?
B. Artisans, Artists, and Architects –1. sculptors builders, carpenters, jewelers metalworkers and leatherworkers –2. statues, furniture, jewelry, pottery, shoes –3. architects designed temples and royal tombs a. could become high govt officials
C. Merchants and Traders –1. few, accompanied by soldiers, scribes and laborers
D. Soldiers –1. After Middle Kingdom wars E had professional army –2. land as payment –3. keep treasure captured in warj
E. Farmers and Other Peasants –1. bottom of social scale –2. majority of pop –3. crops as taxes to pharaoh to pay for land use a. pharaohs controlled all land in kingdom
4. required for special duty too a. soldier b. projects c. mining d. paid in grain F. Slaves –1. most equal to farmers –2. convicted criminals –3. pows –4. projects, farms, workshops, households –5. had some rights and could earn freedom in some cases
What were the most memorable achievements of ancient Egyptians ?
Arch Hieroglyphics Papyrus Books and histories written Temples, sphinx Painting – profile and straight on Carvings and jewelry
What led to the decline of ancient Egyptian civilization ?
Over taxing, invasions, not connected enough to all in empire
Located along a river whose flood brought silt and fertile land to farm ( Nile) Cataracts were natural barrier Rose from farming villages Diversification of labor
What were the political, commercial and cultural relations interactions and influences between Kush and Egypt ?
Kush supplied slaves and raw materials to Egypt Egypt controls when Thumose invades Kush then controls Egypt – but reestablishes much of Egyptian culture Kush defeated by Assyrians in Egypt Kush rebuilt own civilization built iron industry, expanded trade, very much in Egyptian stlye ; resources declined, trade weakened, military weakened lead to decline