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Chapter 17 Integumentary &SkeletalSystems. Includes: Includes: Epithelial cells make up skin & linings of digestive & respiratory Systems Epithelial cells.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 Integumentary &SkeletalSystems. Includes: Includes: Epithelial cells make up skin & linings of digestive & respiratory Systems Epithelial cells."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17 Integumentary &SkeletalSystems

2 Includes: Includes: Epithelial cells make up skin & linings of digestive & respiratory Systems Epithelial cells make up skin & linings of digestive & respiratory Systems Skin, hair and nails Skin, hair and nails Functions of the Skin: Functions of the Skin: Protect from UV rays Protect from UV rays Regulate body temp Regulate body temp Waste removal Waste removal Barrier from infection Barrier from infection Sensory receptor Sensory receptor Two Main Layers & lower layer Two Main Layers & lower layer Epidermis Epidermis Dermis Dermis Hypodermis Hypodermis AKA adipose tissue & subcutaneous layer AKA adipose tissue & subcutaneous layer The Integumentary System Arrector muscle Dead skin cells Erector muscle

3 The Epidermis The Epidermis Two Main Layers Two Main Layers Top layer is made of dead cells Top layer is made of dead cells Rapid cell division – entire skin is replaced every 4 weeks Rapid cell division – entire skin is replaced every 4 weeks Bottom layer is the basal layer Bottom layer is the basal layer Skin Color from Melanin Skin Color from Melanin Produced in melanocytes located in the basal layer of the epidermis Produced in melanocytes located in the basal layer of the epidermis The Integumentary System Dermis Epidermis

4 Melanocytes Melanocytes have many “fingers” that permeate through the dermis. Melanocytes have many “fingers” that permeate through the dermis. Packets of Melanin migrate thru these fingers and absorb the harmful UV rays from the sun. Packets of Melanin migrate thru these fingers and absorb the harmful UV rays from the sun. The more melanin – the darker the skin The more melanin – the darker the skin

5 The Dermis The Dermis Composed mainly of Epithelial Cells Composed mainly of Epithelial Cells Specialized Epithelial Cells form hair & nails Specialized Epithelial Cells form hair & nails 2 types of glands 2 types of glands sebaceous (oil) – secretes oil to protect skin & moisturize sebaceous (oil) – secretes oil to protect skin & moisturize sweat glands (perspiration)– help control body temp removes salts & wastes. sweat glands (perspiration)– help control body temp removes salts & wastes. Hair Follicles Hair Follicles Arrector muscle Arrector muscle Capillaries Capillaries Nerve endings sense – heat, cold, pressure, pain Nerve endings sense – heat, cold, pressure, pain Wrinkles occur here. Wrinkles occur here. The Skin – The Dermis Layer

6 Also known as (AKA): Also known as (AKA): Subcutaneous Layer Subcutaneous Layer Adipose Layer Adipose Layer Fatty tissue serves to insulate, protect and add form Fatty tissue serves to insulate, protect and add form The Skin - Hypodermis

7 The Skeletal System

8 Skeletal System Main Function Main Function Support the body Support the body Anchor point for muscle attachment Anchor point for muscle attachment Protect vital organs Protect vital organs 206 bones in the body 206 bones in the body ½ are in the hands and feet ½ are in the hands and feet 2 main parts 2 main parts Axial Skeleton Axial Skeleton Appendicular Appendicular Skeleton Skeleton 6 smallest in the middle ear :Malleus, Incus, Stapes 6 smallest in the middle ear :Malleus, Incus, Stapes (hammer anvil & stirrup)

9 The Axial Skeleton Bones of the head & trunk Bones of the head & trunk Skull, Spine & Rib Cage Skull, Spine & Rib Cage Vertebral column – bones in 5 regions Vertebral column – bones in 5 regions Separated by cushioning cartilaginous disks Separated by cushioning cartilaginous disks Cervical Region Cervical Region 7 vertebrae 7 vertebrae 1 st vertebrae called the Atlas 1 st vertebrae called the Atlas 2 nd Vertebrae called the Axis 2 nd Vertebrae called the Axis

10 The Axial Skeleton Bones of the head & trunk Bones of the head & trunk Thoracic Region Thoracic Region 12 vertebrae w rib pairs attached 12 vertebrae w rib pairs attached 1 st 7 are true ribs – connected to the sternum 1 st 7 are true ribs – connected to the sternum Next 3 have false ribs – attached to the last true rib w/ cartilage Next 3 have false ribs – attached to the last true rib w/ cartilage Last 2 vertebrae have floating ribs attached Last 2 vertebrae have floating ribs attached Sternum (Breast Bone) Sternum (Breast Bone) Xiphoid process Xiphoid process

11 The Axial Skeleton Bones of the head & trunk Bones of the head & trunk Lumbar Region – (lower back) w/ 5 ribs Lumbar Region – (lower back) w/ 5 ribs Sacrum – 4-5 fused to help make up the pelvis Sacrum – 4-5 fused to help make up the pelvis Coccyx Region – the “tail bone” – made up of 4 fused vertebrae Coccyx Region – the “tail bone” – made up of 4 fused vertebrae

12 The Axial Skeleton The Cranium (Skull) – about 22 bones The Cranium (Skull) – about 22 bones Know these bones: Frontal Bone, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal, Nasal, Maxilla, Mandible, Zygomatic,

13 The Appendicular Skeleton The arms, legs, hands, feet, pectoral and pelvic girdles The arms, legs, hands, feet, pectoral and pelvic girdles

14 The Appendicular Skeleton The pectoral and pelvic girdles The pectoral and pelvic girdles Know these bones: Pectoral Girdal: Scapula, Clavicle, head of the Humerus, Pelvic Girdal: Illium, Ischium, pubis, Sacrum, head of Femur Sacrum

15 The Appendicular Skeleton The arms and hands The arms and hands Know these bones: Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Carpals, Metacarpals and phalanges. Know how to name the fingers so you can identify the individual phalanges of each hand.

16 The Appendicular Skeleton The Legs and Feet The Legs and Feet Know these bones: Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Patella, Tarsals, Metatarsals, Phalanges, Talus, Calcaneus

17 The Structure of Bone The Legs and Feet The Legs and Feet Know these structures: Periosteum, shaft, compact bone, spongy bone, Osteocyte, Haversian Canals, Lamella, red marrow, yellow marrow Periosteum – tough covering which supplies blood vessels, nutrients and oxygen to the bone Compact Bone – dense strong hard bone, makes up the shaft of long bones Spongy Bone – porous bone filled w/ Marrow red marrow – contains & makes red and white blood cells Yellow marrow – contains fat and nerve cells

18 The Structure of Bone The Legs and Feet The Legs and Feet Know these structures: Periosteum, shaft, compact bone, spongy bone, Osteocyte, Haversian Canals, Lamella, red marrow, yellow marrow Osteocyte – cells that manufacture bone cells- embedded in compact and spongy layers. Deposits Calcium to make the bone Haversian Canals: network of tubes filled w/ vessels and nerves that supply marrow w/ materials Lamella – Circular layers of bone make up compact hard bone

19 The Structure of Bone Growth & Connections Growth & Connections Know these structures and terms: Epiphyseal plate, cartilage, ligament, tendons, joint, suture, immovable, pivot, hinge, ball & socket, gliding Epiphyseal Plates – area of growth in long bones Cartilage: flexible yet strong cushioning connective tissue usually between bones Tendon – connects muscle to bone Ligament – connect bone to bone

20 The Structure of Bone Growth & Connections Growth & Connections Know these structures and terms: Epiphyseal plate, cartilage, ligament, tendons, joint, suture, immovable, pivot, hinge, ball & socket, gliding Joint – place where two bones come together Immovable: joints in the cranium Hinge – Elbow & knee Ball & Socket – Widest range of motion, Circular type movement shoulder & hip Pivot – Allows side-to-side and up- and-down movement Vertebrae, radius/ulna Gliding – some bending and twisting: wrist & ankle, fingers & toes

21 Chapter 17 Integumentary & Skeletal Systems & Skeletal Systems That’s all folks!!


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