Presentation on theme: "Integumentary & Skeletal Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1Integumentary & Skeletal Systems Chapter 17Integumentary&SkeletalSystems
2The Integumentary System Includes:Epithelial cells make up skin & linings of digestive & respiratory SystemsSkin, hair and nailsFunctions of the Skin:Protect from UV raysRegulate body tempWaste removalBarrier from infectionSensory receptorTwo Main Layers & lower layerEpidermisDermisHypodermisAKA adipose tissue & subcutaneous layerErector muscleDead skin cellsArrector muscle
3The Integumentary System The EpidermisTwo Main LayersTop layer is made of dead cellsRapid cell division – entire skin is replaced every 4 weeksBottom layer is the basal layerSkin Color from MelaninProduced in melanocytes located in the basal layer of the epidermisEpidermisDermis
4MelanocytesMelanocytes have many “fingers” that permeate through the dermis.Packets of Melanin migrate thru these fingers and absorb the harmful UV rays from the sun.The more melanin – the darker the skin
5The Skin – The Dermis Layer Composed mainly of Epithelial CellsSpecialized Epithelial Cells form hair & nails2 types of glandssebaceous (oil) – secretes oil to protect skin & moisturizesweat glands (perspiration)– help control body temp removes salts & wastes.Hair FolliclesArrector muscleCapillariesNerve endings sense – heat, cold, pressure, painWrinkles occur here.
6The Skin - Hypodermis Also known as (AKA): Subcutaneous Layer Adipose LayerFatty tissue serves to insulate, protect and add form
8Skeletal System Main Function Support the body Anchor point for muscle attachmentProtect vital organs206 bones in the body½ are in the hands and feet2 main partsAxial SkeletonAppendicularSkeleton6 smallest in the middle ear :Malleus, Incus, Stapes(hammer anvil & stirrup)
9The Axial Skeleton Bones of the head & trunk Skull, Spine & Rib Cage Vertebral column – bones in 5 regionsSeparated by cushioning cartilaginous disksCervical Region7 vertebrae1st vertebrae called the Atlas2nd Vertebrae called the Axis
10The Axial Skeleton Bones of the head & trunk Thoracic Region 12 vertebrae w rib pairs attached1st 7 are true ribs – connected to the sternumNext 3 have false ribs – attached to the last true rib w/ cartilageLast 2 vertebrae have floating ribs attachedSternum (Breast Bone)Xiphoid process
11The Axial Skeleton Bones of the head & trunk Lumbar Region – (lower back) w/ 5 ribsSacrum – 4-5 fused to help make up the pelvisCoccyx Region – the “tail bone” – made up of 4 fused vertebrae
12The Axial Skeleton The Cranium (Skull) – about 22 bones Know these bones: Frontal Bone, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal, Nasal, Maxilla, Mandible, Zygomatic,
13The Appendicular Skeleton The arms, legs, hands, feet, pectoral and pelvic girdles
14The Appendicular Skeleton The pectoral and pelvic girdlesSacrumKnow these bones:Pectoral Girdal: Scapula, Clavicle, head of the Humerus,Pelvic Girdal: Illium, Ischium, pubis, Sacrum, head of Femur
15The Appendicular Skeleton The arms and handsKnow these bones:Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Carpals, Metacarpals and phalanges.Know how to name the fingers so you can identify the individual phalanges of each hand.
16The Appendicular Skeleton The Legs and FeetKnow these bones:Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Patella, Tarsals, Metatarsals, Phalanges, Talus, Calcaneus
17The Structure of Bone The Legs and Feet Know these structures: Periosteum, shaft, compact bone, spongy bone, Osteocyte, Haversian Canals, Lamella, red marrow, yellow marrowPeriosteum – tough covering which supplies blood vessels, nutrients and oxygen to the boneCompact Bone – dense strong hard bone, makes up the shaft of long bonesSpongy Bone – porous bone filled w/ Marrowred marrow – contains & makes red and white blood cellsYellow marrow – contains fat and nerve cells
18The Structure of Bone The Legs and Feet Know these structures: Periosteum, shaft, compact bone, spongy bone, Osteocyte, Haversian Canals, Lamella, red marrow, yellow marrowOsteocyte – cells that manufacture bone cells- embedded in compact and spongy layers. Deposits Calcium to make the boneHaversian Canals: network of tubes filled w/ vessels and nerves that supply marrow w/ materialsLamella – Circular layers of bone make up compact hard bone
19The Structure of Bone Growth & Connections Know these structures and terms:Epiphyseal plate, cartilage, ligament, tendons, joint, suture, immovable, pivot, hinge, ball & socket, glidingEpiphyseal Plates – area of growth in long bonesCartilage: flexible yet strong cushioning connective tissue usually between bonesTendon – connects muscle to boneLigament – connect bone to bone
20The Structure of Bone Growth & Connections Know these structures and terms:Epiphyseal plate, cartilage, ligament, tendons, joint, suture, immovable, pivot, hinge, ball & socket, glidingJoint – place where two bones come togetherImmovable: joints in the craniumHinge – Elbow & kneeBall & Socket – Widest range of motion, Circular type movement shoulder & hipPivot – Allows side-to-side and up-and-down movement Vertebrae, radius/ulnaGliding – some bending and twisting: wrist & ankle, fingers & toes
21Integumentary & Skeletal Systems That’s all folks!! Chapter 17Integumentary& Skeletal SystemsThat’s all folks!!